H. C. FREND

Athanasian Creed

ATHANASIAN CREED A profession of faith widely used in the West down to recent times, wrongly attributed to Athanasius. Its statements opposing Apollinarianism suggest the period 380-430 as the time of compilation; its Latin language, Gaul or north Italy as its place of origin. BIBLIOGRAPHY Kelly, J. N. D. The Athanasian Creed. London, 1964. W. …

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Basilides

BASILIDES A second-century Alexandrian Gnostic teacher. According to CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (Stromata vii.106.4), Basilides taught in Alexandria during the reign of Hadrian (117-138) and Antoninus Pius (138-161). EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA gives the precise date of A.D. 132 (Jerome, 1846, cols. 619-20). He would seem to be the earliest of the three leading Gnostic teachers in …

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Decius

DECIUS A Roman emperor (full name, Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius) from the autumn of 249 to late June 251. Born about 200 at Sirmium in Pannonia, he became an important senator and married into the Roman noble house of the Herennii. In 248, when the Goths were exerting intense pressure on the Danube frontier …

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Donatism

DONATISM A schism in the church in North Africa that grew out of the Great Persecution under DIOCLETIAN and in some ways resembled the Melitian movement in Egypt. While the more profound causes lay in the puritanical ethic of the North African church, its opposition to the secular world, and its enthusiasm for the cult …

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Alexander Of Lycopolis

ALEXANDER OF LYCOPOLIS A Neoplatonist philosopher (c. A.D. 300). Photius of Constantinople indicates (Contra Manichaeos 1. 11) that he converted to Christianity and became archbishop of Lycopolis. He is known through his De placitis Manichaeorum, which shows him as a coolheaded critic of the teaching being spread in Egypt by Manichaean missionaries in the first …

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Anathema

ANATHEMA Either a votive offering set up in a temple (2 Macc. 2:13; Philo, De vita Mosis 1.253) or, in general terms, that which is devoted to a divinity either consecrated or accursed. In New Testament times, the meaning was moving in the direction of the latter, the best example being in Paul’s First Letter …

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Anomoeans

ANOMOEANS The name given to the radical group of Arians who emerged about 356 under the leadership of Eunomius, bishop of Cyzicus (360-364), and the “godless” deacon Aetius. It is based on the Greek word anomoios (unlike), referring to the relationship between the Father and Son within the Godhead. The Son was stated to be …

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Family Of Apion

FAMILY OF APION A wealthy landowners prominent in Egyptian imperial and public life in the first half of the sixth century. The earliest known member of the family, Apion I, held land around Herakleopolis Magna (see AHNAS AL-MADINAH) in 497 (Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1982; Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde 20.129). He was already prominent, having held …

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