Griechisch

Dictionaries

DICTIONARIES From the time when the Copts, like other nations or linguistic entities, felt the need to have at their disposal in writing the equivalents, exact or approximate, of the words of their language, attempts were made to compose modest lists of bilingual vocabulary; these may justly be considered the ancestors of modern Coptic dictionaries. …

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Schubart, Wilhelm

SCHUBART, WILHELM (1873-1960) A German papyrologist. He was a pupil of Ulrich Wilcken and worked from 1898 until 1937 at the Papyrusabteilung of the State Museum at Berlin. After his retirement from the museum, he was professor of ancient history at Leipzig University (1945-1952). Among his numerous publications (cf. Morenz, 1950, pp. 7-24) there are …

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Hermes Trismegistus (“Thrice-Greatest Hermes”)

HERMES TRISMEGISTUS (“Thrice-greatest Hermes”) This name is a Greek adaptation of an Egyptian title, Thoth the Very Great, the Egyptian god-name Thoth being translated from at least the time of Herodotus to the Greek Hermes. The literature associated with Hermes Trismegistus is known as the Corpus Hermeticum and comprises some seventeen writings of diverse origin …

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Apocryphal Literature

APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE Properly speaking, this consists of the so-called Old Testament pseudepigrapha. The Old Testament books called “apocryphal” by Protestants and “deuterocanonical” by Roman Catholics were until recently included in the biblical canon of the Coptic church. Only at the beginning of the twentieth century and by order of CYRIL V (1874-1927) were the following …

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Hengstenberg, Wilhelm

HENGSTENBERG, WILHELM (1885-1963) A professor of Eastern Christianity at the University of Munich. He taught the languages of Eastern Christianity, including Coptic. Among his pupils were J. Assfalg and A. Böhlig. His doctoral thesis, “Koptische Urkunden und Briefe” (University of Munich, 1921), was not published, but he did publish important articles about monasticism in Egypt, …

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Papyrus Collections

PAPYRUS COLLECTIONS Since the seventeenth-century scholars and travelers to Egypt have brought manuscripts to Europe. The papyri, whether they came to light in spectacular finds or as individual discoveries, whether they were uncovered in scientific excavations or through the diggings of thieves, went into papyrus collections, either directly or through dealers (see PAPYRUS DISCOVERIES). Not …

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Magic

MAGIC The art of pretending to accomplish actions with the help of supernatural forces contrary to the laws of nature. Coptic magic is a particularly rich field for studying the relationships of the ancient Copts with the invisible forces of heaven and hell that were part of the old Egyptian heritage (Lexa, 1925; Brier, 1980). …

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