ANTICHRIST (ἀντίχριστος)

ANTICHRIST (ἀντίχριστος) The word is found in the NT only in 1 Jn 2:18, 22; 4:3, 2 Jn 7, but the idea further appears in the Gospels, the Pauline Epistles, and above all in the Apocalypse. It is not, however, an idea original to Christianity, but an adaptation of Jewish conceptions which, as Bousset has […]

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ANGER

ANGER Human anger.—Except by the stoical mind which finds no place for strong emotion in a moral scheme, anger has been recognized as a quality which, under certain conditions and within certain limits, may not only be permissible but commendable. Its ready abuse has, however, led to its being commonly placed among the evils of […]

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ANGELS

ANGELS The scope of this article.—The passages in the apostolic writings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in HDB […]

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AMEN

AMEN The lack of a common language has always been a barrier to the mutual knowledge and intercourse of the great nations of mankind, all the more that the days when the educated men of all European nations were wont to converse in Latin have long since passed away. To a certain extent the gulf […]

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AKELDAMA (Ἀκελδαμά TR)

AKELDAMA (Ἁκελδαμάχ WH, Ἀκελδαμά TR) Akeldama is said to be equivalent to χωρίον αἵματος in Ac 1:19, and to ἀγρὸς αἵματος in Mt 27:8: in that case the word represents Aram. הֲקֵל ךְּמָא and the final χ (which is retained also in the best Vulg. text, acheldemach) transliterates א (which is only rarely so found). […]

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ÆON (αἰών, αἰῶνες, ‘age,’ ‘ages’)

ÆON (αἰών, αἰῶνες, ‘age,’ ‘ages’) There is some uncertainty as to the derivation of the word αἰών. Some relate it with ἄημι, ‘to breathe,’ but modern opinion connects it with ἀεί, αἰεί (= αἰών), and finds as other derivatives the Latin œvum and the English ‘aye.’ In the LXX αἰών is used to translate עוֹלָם […]

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ADOPTION

ADOPTION The term.—The custom of adopting children is explicitly alluded to by St. Paul alone of biblical writers; he uses the word ‘adoption’ (υἱοθεσία, Vulg. adoptio filiorum, Syr. usually sīmath benayā)) five times: Ro 8:15, 23; 9:4, Gal 4:5, Eph 1:5. This Greek word is not found in classical writers (though θετὸς υἱός is used […]

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ACCOUNT

ACCOUNT It will be sufficient merely to mention the use of the verb ‘account’ (λογίζομαι) in the sense of ‘reckon,’ ‘deem,’ ‘consider’ (Ro 8:36, 1 Co 4:1, He 11:19, 2 P 3:15). Simple uses of the nonn are found in Ac 19:40, when the ‘town-clerk’ (q.v.) of Ephesus warns his fellow-citizens of the difficulty of […]

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ACCESS

ACCESS This word in the Epistles of the NT is the translation of the Greek word προσαγωγή (Ro 5:2, Eph 2:18; 3:12; cf. 1 P 3:18, where the verb is used actively). It has been treated very thoroughly in DCG (s.v.). Here we shall confine ourselves to— The connotation of the word.—In classical Greek, the […]

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ABIDING

ABIDING As in the Gospels, so in Acts and Ephesians we find both the local and the ethical connotations of this word, which in almost every case is used to render μἐνω or one of its numerous compounds (ἐπι-, κατα-, παρα-, προς-, ὑπο-). With the purely local usages we have here no concern; but there […]

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