Fribourg

Cyriacus

CYRIACUS A Bishop of al-Bahnasa (Oxyrhynchus), assumed author of eight homilies. We have no historical evidence of either the existence of this person or the period in which he lived. On the latter, opinions greatly diverge: G. Graf (1944-1953, Vol. 1, p. 475) thinks that if one accepts what is said by the Ethiopian Book …

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Theban Legion

THEBAN LEGION According to Saint Eucherius, legion consisting of 6,600 Christian soldiers who had been recruited in Thebes (the Thebaid) in Upper Egypt as part of the Roman army. Three detailed manuscripts tell of the martyrdom of the Theban Legion, mainly at Agaunum (Saint Maurice-en-Valais), during the reign of Emperor DIOCLETIAN (284-305) and his co-emperor …

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Anaphora Of Saint Basil

ANAPHORA OF SAINT BASIL Anaphora normally used in the Coptic church, and one of the three retained in Coptic service books when others were abandoned in the Middle Ages. The expression “Anaphora of Saint Basil” is used to designate either (1) that anaphora within its strict limits (from the dialogue introducing the eucharistic prayer to …

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Anaphora Of Saint Gregory

ANAPHORA OF SAINT GREGORY One of the three anaphoras retained by the Coptic church in its service books. In the manuscript tradition, followed by modern printed editions, the anaphora in the strict sense (from the beginning of the eucharistic prayer to the doxology before the fraction and Lord’s Prayer) is supplemented by certain prayers preceding …

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Hefele, Karl Joseph

HEFELE, KARL JOSEPH (1809-1893) A German  churchman, educator, and ecclesiastical historian. He taught at Tubingen from 1836, became full professor in 1840, and was elected bishop of Rothenburg in 1869. He visited Rome just before his election, and owing to his vast knowledge in the field of church councils, was chosen by the Vatican as …

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Persecutions

PERSECUTIONS The persecution of Christians in Egypt has to be considered in connection with the religious policy and the ruler cult of the Roman emperors. Right from the start the Christians, being the followers of what was largely perceived as a Jewish sectarian executed by order of a Roman government representative, looked suspicious to both …

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Mark, Liturgy Of Saint

MARK, LITURGY OF SAINT A Greek liturgy once used in the Church of Alexandria. A recension of its anaphoric part is found in the EUCHOLOGION of the Coptic church as the Anaphora of Saint CYRIL. Egyptian peculiarities are most evident in its anaphoric part, whose opening eucharistic prayer, after a brief summary of God’s saving …

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Mauritius, Saint

MAURITIUS, SAINT (feast day, 25 Tut) The favorite and most widely venerated of the saints of the THEBAN LEGION. During the Middle Ages, he was revered as the guardian of several professions, including soldiers, armorers, and dyers. Several orders were established in his honor, including the Order of the Golden Fleece, founded by Philip the …

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