Franks

Filioque

FILIOQUE Latin, meaning “and [from] the son.” In the sixth century, Arian barbarians (Goth and Visigoth) invaded the western empire and introduced many heretical dogmas and expressions. In 589 a.d., the Council of Toledo included details in the Nicene Creed concerning the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son in order …

Filioque Read More »

Butrus Sawirus Al-Jamil, Bishop Of Malij (Beginning Of 13th C.)

BUTRUS SAWIRUS AL-JAMIL, BISHOP OF MALIJ (beginning of 13th c.) A Bishop, apologist, hagiographer. The limited information that we possess about Butrus al-Jamil, who perhaps received the name Sawirus upon his consecration as bishop of Malij, points to a polemically minded scholar: his Kitab al-Ishraq (The Book of the Sunrise) is a catalog of the …

Butrus Sawirus Al-Jamil, Bishop Of Malij (Beginning Of 13th C.) Read More »

Dayr Asfal Al-Ard

DAYR ASFAL AL-ARD The most detailed description of this convent near Alexandria is given by Abu al-Makarim (1984, pp. 161, 168). He indicates that this monastery was situated east of the town and bore the name of Saint Mark. It was extensive, surrounded by gardens and cultivated land, and had no fewer than four keeps. …

Dayr Asfal Al-Ard Read More »

Nestorians And Copts

NESTORIANS AND COPTS Having been separate from Imperial Christianity since the first Council of Ephesus (431), the Syriac Church of the East reappeared in Egypt after the Arab conquest, in particular during the Abbasid period, and Nestorians were used as government employees. The Nestorians lived mainly in Cairo. Yahya ibn Sa‘id of Antioch, the Melchite …

Nestorians And Copts Read More »