First Council of EPHESUS

Nestorians And Copts

NESTORIANS AND COPTS Having been separate from Imperial Christianity since the first Council of Ephesus (431), the Syriac Church of the East reappeared in Egypt after the Arab conquest, in particular during the Abbasid period, and Nestorians were used as government employees. The Nestorians lived mainly in Cairo. Yahya ibn Sa‘id of Antioch, the Melchite …

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Tinnis

TINNIS A city located on an island in the southeastern part of Lake Manzalah in the province of Daqahliyyah, the site of which is now known as Kom Tinnis. Tinnis was a bishopric at least as early as the first third of the fifth century as evidenced by the mention of Bishop Heracleides (Heraclius in …

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Timothy II Aelurus

TIMOTHY II AELURUS The twenty-sixth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (457-477). Along with Philoxenus of Mabbug and SEVERUS OF ANTIOCH, Timothy was the preeminent champion of MONOPHYSITISM. He adhered to CYRIL’S well-known formula “one incarnate nature of the divine Logos” and took up DIOSCORUS’ cause when the latter was deposed at CHALCEDON. Consecrated …

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Coptic Literature

COPTIC LITERATURE National literatures are defined not only by the language in which they are written but also by ethnic and cultural affinities that bind their authors. That is why we may distinguish an American literature in English from British literature or a Latin-American literature in Spanish from Spanish literature. The literature in the Coptic …

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Al-Burullus

AL-BURULLUS A town in Egypt located somewhere between present-day Baltim and al-Burj on the eastern shore of Lake Burullus in the northern Delta. Al-Burullus had a bishop as early as the first third of the fourth century. Bishop Nonnas was in office in 339; he was succeeded by Bishop Nemesion (Munier, 1943, p. 9). Bishop …

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Anathema

ANATHEMA Either a votive offering set up in a temple (2 Macc. 2:13; Philo, De vita Mosis 1.253) or, in general terms, that which is devoted to a divinity either consecrated or accursed. In New Testament times, the meaning was moving in the direction of the latter, the best example being in Paul’s First Letter …

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Eutyches

EUTYCHES The fifth-century archimandrite in Constantinople whose Christological views had a considerable influence in molding the Christology of the Coptic-Monophysite church. Born perhaps as early as 370 (he tells Pope LEO THE GREAT (440-461) that he had lived a monastic life for seventy years), he was head of a monastic house in the capital by …

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