Farshut

Egyptian Gnosticism from Its Cradle in the Alexandrian Quarters of the Second Century

Egyptian Gnosticism from Its Cradle in the Alexandrian Quarters of the Second Century to Its Jar Tomb in the Upper Egyptian Town of Nag’ Hammadi Introduction The aim of this study is to try to interpret the fate of Gnosticism in Egypt through a simple investigation of places where texts were found and the historical …

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Coptic Toponymy

COPTIC TOPONYMY The study of ancient place-names is one of the most interesting domains of historical research, since the names of hamlets, villages, and towns of the past often give brief but valuable indications, usually absent from historical records, about the creation of those urban centers and the reasons for their founding, whether economic, political, …

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Spoken Coptic Language

SPOKEN COPTIC LANGUAGE Coptic was the spoken language of ancient Egypt until the ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT in the seventh century. It was recorded first in the hieroglyphic (sacred) script, the earliest form of Egyptian pictorial writing, and succeeded by the hieratic (priestly), which was the simplified running script, and the demotic (from “demos,” meaning …

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Coptic Literature

COPTIC LITERATURE National literatures are defined not only by the language in which they are written but also by ethnic and cultural affinities that bind their authors. That is why we may distinguish an American literature in English from British literature or a Latin-American literature in Spanish from Spanish literature. The literature in the Coptic …

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Bakhanis-Tmoushons

BAKHANIS-TMOUSHONS A village situated on the left bank of the Nile, in the Nag Hammadi district, about 4 miles (7 km) to the northeast of FARSHUT. The ancient Arabic spelling was Makhanis, under which it is easy to recognize the Coptic name Tmoushons, the Coptic article T having been dropped and the sh sound having …

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Dayr Anba Bidaba

DAYR ANBA BIDABA A monastery-village 1.25 miles (2 km) west of Nag Hammadi and south of Bahjurah. It is mentioned in the recension of the Coptic SYNAXARION from Upper Egypt at 13 Kiyahk, the feast day of the saint, who was bishop of the town of QUS (cf. Coquin, 1978, p. 361). T. Lefort believed …

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Farshut

FARSHUT A large town situated on the left bank of the Nile after it resumes its course from south to north, having flowed contrary to its custom from east to west between Qina and Hiw. Farshut, written with the feminine article (s) in the Coptic texts, is said to have come from the language of …

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Pbow

PBOW History Pbow is the Coptic name of the second and most important monastery of Saint PACHOMIUS. For centuries the superior of the whole Pachomian congregation resided at Pbow. The site is now considered equivalent to the town of Faw al-Qibli (Faw of the South, in contrast with the neighboring village Faw al-Bahari, Faw of …

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