exhortations

ABSTINENCE

ABSTINENCE Introduction.—The whole of morality on its negative side may be included under Abstinence. Christian moral progress (sanctification) includes a holding fast (κατέχεσθαι) of the good, and an abstaining from (ἀπέχεσθαι) every form of evil (1 Th 5:21f.). While Christianity has general laws to distinguish the good from the bad, yet for each individual Christian …

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”Do Not Believe Every Word like the Fool . . . !” Rhetorical Strategies in Shenoute, Canon 6

”Do Not Believe Every Word like the Fool . . . !” Rhetorical Strategies in Shenoute, Canon 6 ST. SHENOUTE (flORUIT ~A.D. 385–465) is the major Coptic writer of the late fourth and fifth centuries. The idea of producing texts in Coptic was not his invention, but he brought the language to a peak of …

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Coptic Testament Of Isaac

COPTIC TESTAMENT OF ISAAC A pseudepigraphical book possibly dating from the fourth or fifth century. Two Coptic versions of the second- or third-century Testament of Isaac have survived: the Sahidic, edited by K. H. Kuhn (1957), and the Bohairic, edited by I. Guidi (1900). The former has been translated into English by its editor (Kuhn, …

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Thunder: Perfect Mind (NHC VI, 2)

THUNDER: PERFECT MIND (NHC VI, 2) A Gnostic revelation monologue pronounced by a feminine revealer figure, featuring self-predications and exhortations addressed to her listeners. The title occurs at the beginning of the tractate (Greek bronte, “thunder,” is a feminine noun, probably here identifying the speaker as a voice of divine thunder). The speaker’s self-predications are …

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Apocryphon Of James

APOCRYPHON OF JAMES Also known as the Apocryphal Epistle of James, the second tractate in Codex I of the NAG HAMMADI LIBRARY. It occupies sixteen pages, all well preserved except for the first three. The Coptic text apparently had no title. It is a translation into Subakhmimic Coptic of a Greek work that taught a …

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Theonas

THEONAS The sixteenth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (282-300). Theonas was a contemporary of Roman emperors Carus (282-283), Numerianus (283-284), and DIOCLETIAN (284-305). After the death of Patriarch Maximus, it took the faithful some months to find a worthy successor. Finally they elected Theonas, who was the head of the CATECHETICAL SCHOOL OF …

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Besa

BESA A fifth-century monk and third abbot of the White Monastery (DAYR ANBA SHINUDAH), situated beside the ancient village of Atrib in the region of Akhmim, near Suhaj. The monastery was founded by PJOL in the middle of the fourth century, and Besa’s immediate predecessor as abbot was SHENUTE. No Life of Besa exists, and …

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Basil The Great

BASIL THE GREAT The archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia (330-379). Basil supported the tradition of ATHANASIUS in continuing the defense of orthodoxy against ARIANISM, particularly in Asia Minor. He was an active theologian, but was able to connect theological work with ascetic practice. Basil’s background and education were Hellenistic. The descendant of a rich and …

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