Evil

ANGER

ANGER Human anger.—Except by the stoical mind which finds no place for strong emotion in a moral scheme, anger has been recognized as a quality which, under certain conditions and within certain limits, may not only be permissible but commendable. Its ready abuse has, however, led to its being commonly placed among the evils of …

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ANGELS

ANGELS The scope of this article.—The passages in the apostolic writings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in HDB …

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ANATHEMA

ANATHEMA The transliteration of a Gr. word which is used in the LXX to represent the Heb. ḥērem, ‘a person or thing devoted or set apart, under religious sanctions, for destruction’ (Lv 27:28, 29, Jos 6:17). It is capable of use in the good sense of an offering to God, but was gradually confined to …

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ALEXANDER (Ἀλέξανδρος, ‘helper of men’)

ALEXANDER (Ἀλέξανδρος, ‘helper of men’) This name is found in the NT in five different connexions, and possibly designates as many different individuals. The son of Simon of Cyrene, who bore the cross to Calvary (Mk 15:21), and the brother of Rufus. In all probability Alexander and his brother were well-known and honoured men in …

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AIR

AIR The apostles, like other Jews of their time, regarded the air as a region between earth and the higher heavens, inhabited by spirits, especially evil spirits. In Eph 2:2 the air is the abode or Satan (see below); in Eph 6:12 ‘the heavenlies’ (τὰ ἐπουράνια)—a vague phrase used also in Eph 1:3, 20; 2:6; …

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ÆON (αἰών, αἰῶνες, ‘age,’ ‘ages’)

ÆON (αἰών, αἰῶνες, ‘age,’ ‘ages’) There is some uncertainty as to the derivation of the word αἰών. Some relate it with ἄημι, ‘to breathe,’ but modern opinion connects it with ἀεί, αἰεί (= αἰών), and finds as other derivatives the Latin œvum and the English ‘aye.’ In the LXX αἰών is used to translate עוֹלָם …

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ACCESS

ACCESS This word in the Epistles of the NT is the translation of the Greek word προσαγωγή (Ro 5:2, Eph 2:18; 3:12; cf. 1 P 3:18, where the verb is used actively). It has been treated very thoroughly in DCG (s.v.). Here we shall confine ourselves to— The connotation of the word.—In classical Greek, the …

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ABSTINENCE

ABSTINENCE Introduction.—The whole of morality on its negative side may be included under Abstinence. Christian moral progress (sanctification) includes a holding fast (κατέχεσθαι) of the good, and an abstaining from (ἀπέχεσθαι) every form of evil (1 Th 5:21f.). While Christianity has general laws to distinguish the good from the bad, yet for each individual Christian …

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ABEL

ABEL Abel (Ἄβελ) has the first place in the roll of ‘the elders’ (οἱ πρεσβύτεροι, He 11:2), or men of past generations, who by their faith pleased God and had witness borne to them. It Is recorded of him that he offered unto God a more excellent Sacrifice (πλείονα θυσίαν) than his older brother (He …

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