Eutychius

Copto-Arabic Literature

COPTO-ARABIC LITERATURE Coptic literature per se, a subject treated elsewhere, is confined to the writings in the Coptic language during the early centuries of medieval Egyptian history when that language was the spoken language of the people as well as their only written instrument. After the ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT in the seventh century, the …

Copto-Arabic Literature Read More »

Copto-Arabic Synaxarion

COPTO-ARABIC SYNAXARION A list of saints used in the Coptic church Editions of the Synaxarion This book, which has become a liturgical book, is very important for the history of the Coptic church. It appears in two forms: the recension from Lower Egypt, which is the quasi-official book of the Coptic church from Alexandria to …

Copto-Arabic Synaxarion Read More »

Burah

BURAH The older name of the town now known as Kafr al-Battikh, in the Gharbiyyah province. The town is located in the northeast part of the Delta on the west bank of the Nile arm about five miles west of Damietta. The earliest mention of Christianity in Burah is found in the writings of Eutychius, …

Burah Read More »

Athanasius Of Clysma

ATHANASIUS OF CLYSMA A third-century martyr and undoubtedly an Egyptian saint although probably not a Coptic saint. His Passion exists in Greek, Georgian, and Arabic. It may be considered to be a Greco-Palestinian document. The Greek text (Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca 193) was published by A. Papadopoulos Kerameus in 1898 from the still unique Paris manuscript …

Athanasius Of Clysma Read More »

Bana

BANA A city in the province of Gharbiyyah in the middle of the Egyptian Delta, located about 6 miles (9.5 km) south of Samannud and 3 miles (5 km) south of Abusir Bana. In Greek the place was known as lower Kynopolis (in Upper Egypt there was also a Kynopolis, now known as al-Qays). In …

Bana Read More »

Dayr Al-Qusayr (Turah)

DAYR AL-QUSAYR (Turah) [This article is made up of two parts, history and architecture. More information has accumulated about Dayr al-Qusayr than about many other monasteries.] History This ruined monastery in the Middle Ages was called Dayr al- Baghl (Monastery of the Mule); Dayr al- Yunan; Dayr al- Haraqal (Monastery of Heraclius); and Dayr Arsaniyus, …

Dayr Al-Qusayr (Turah) Read More »

Raithou (Al-Rayah)

RAITHOU (al-Rayah) Ancient town, which has disappeared, 5 miles (8 km) south of al-Tur, a small town on the west coast of the southern Sinai Peninsula. The information collected there by Porphyry Ouspensky in 1850 places al-Rayah, or at least its ruins, on the edge of the sea, two hours’ march south of al-Tur (see …

Raithou (Al-Rayah) Read More »

Patriarchal Election

PATRIARCHAL ELECTION The Coptic Orthodox church is an apostolic church, and its first patriarchs were selected from a limited number of priests of whom the first group of twelve were appointed to help ANIANUS (68-85), who succeeded Saint Mark as second bishop of Alexandria. According to Sa‘id IBN AL-BITRIQ, the tenth-century Melchite patriarch also known …

Patriarchal Election Read More »

Pharan

PHARAN (Faran) An oasis in the south of the Sinai Peninsula, a little to the north of the town of al-Tur (RAITHOU) and to the west of the Greek monastery of Saint Catherine. Netra or Nitira, a hermit in Sinai, became bishop of Pharan at the end of the fourth century or the beginning of …

Pharan Read More »