EUTYCHES

Theodoret (c. 393-458)

THEODORET (c. 393-458) The writer of exegetical and historical works. A native of Antioch, he was born into a pious Christian family of great wealth and received his education in a monastic school. After the death of his parents while he was in his twenties, he decided to distribute his inherited wealth to the poor …

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Dioscorus I

DIOSCORUS I The saint and twenty-fifth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (444-458). He succeeded Saint CYRIL THE GREAT and must be regarded as one of the chief architects of Coptic Christianity and the Egyptian church. Little is known about his early life beyond the supposition that he was a native of Alexandria, born …

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Family Of Apion

FAMILY OF APION A wealthy landowners prominent in Egyptian imperial and public life in the first half of the sixth century. The earliest known member of the family, Apion I, held land around Herakleopolis Magna (see AHNAS AL-MADINAH) in 497 (Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1982; Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde 20.129). He was already prominent, having held …

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Zeno

ZENO A Roman emperor (474-491). An Isaurian chieftain by birth, he came to Constantinople and in 466 or 467 married the daughter of Emperor LEO I (457-474). He changed his almost unpronounceable name, Tarasicodissa, to Zeno; and when Leo I died in February 474, he maneuvered his way into becoming a joint ruler with his …

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Monophysitism

MONOPHYSITISM The doctrine that the incarnate Christ is one Person and has one divine nature as opposed to the orthodox doctrine that he is one Person and has two natures, one human and one divine. The rift between the Monophysites, including the Coptic, Syrian, Ethiopian, and Armenian churches, and the Orthodox Church has divided Eastern …

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Eutyches

EUTYCHES The fifth-century archimandrite in Constantinople whose Christological views had a considerable influence in molding the Christology of the Coptic-Monophysite church. Born perhaps as early as 370 (he tells Pope LEO THE GREAT (440-461) that he had lived a monastic life for seventy years), he was head of a monastic house in the capital by …

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Henoticon

HENOTICON A fifth-century imperial edict that was one of the basic statements of imperial theology and ecclesiastical policy of the early Byzantine period. It is the name given to the instrument of union addressed by Emperor ZENO to the “bishops, clergy, monks and laity throughout Alexandria and Egypt and Libya and Pentapolis” in 482. Its …

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Nikiou

NIKIOU A Greek name of a city in the Egyptian Delta in the area of Minuf. Traditionally, the city was named after the governor who founded it. Nikiou was known in Coptic as psati (Pshati) and in Arabic literature, it was called Niqyus or Ibshadi. The location of Nikiou is a matter of some debate. …

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Nestorians And Copts

NESTORIANS AND COPTS The first theological and Christological clash between the Nestorian doctrines and Alexandrian orthodoxy took place at the Council of EPHESUS (431). CYRIL I (412-444) faced a new phase in Christology as preached by the scholar NESTORIUS, patriarch of Constantinople. The Alexandrian theologians, led by Saint Cyril, taught that Jesus Christ was the …

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