Emperors

Wall painting, Dome of the Martyrs, Paul’s Monastery.

Coptic Art during the Ottoman Period: Documentation of the Akhmimic Style

Coptic Art during the Ottoman Period: Documentation of the Akhmimic Style History of the Akhmimic Style In the course of the seventeenth century, during the Ottoman period, significant innovations were introduced into Coptic art, which has led some scholars to speak of the ‘Akhmimic style.’ In order to study this style we need first to …

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Arianism

ARIANISM Arianism is the doctrine established by Arius. It is important to mention that our primary sources on the Arian crisis are very poor. Most of our knowledge comes from his opponents, that is, Athanasius of Alexandria and others. The Arians played an important role in Church history until their extinction around 395 a.d. Arianism …

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Abu Mina

ABU MINA A most significant pilgrimage center of the Late Antique period. It is located about 45 kilometers southwest of Alexandria near Lake Mareotis, where the tomb of St. Menas was venerated from the fourth century onward. According to a tradition, St. Menas was an Egyptian recruit in the Roman army who was martyred because …

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Apostolic See

APOSTOLIC SEE An apostolic see is a see that was founded by an Apostle. The number of sees and their names differed from century to century. In the fourth century, Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Ephesus were considered the four apostolic sees. However, with the foundation of Constantinople as a capital, the emperors started to assert …

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Copto-Arabic Literature

COPTO-ARABIC LITERATURE This entry consists of four parts. The first addresses the origins and development of the Arabic literature of the Copts. This is followed by introductions to three Copto-Arabic literary genres—hagiography, apocalyptic, and popular catechesis—for which texts are usually of anonymous authorship, and therefore unlikely to be otherwise addressed in a dictionary arranged largely …

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Dayr Al-Baramus

DAYR AL-BARAMUS History This monastery is farthest to the northwest in the monastic colony of Wadi al-Natrun (ancient Scetis). The topographic allusions in ancient literature lend some credence to the statement by the author of the Coptic Life of Saint Macarius (probably of the eighth century; cf. Guillaumont, 1968-1969, pp. 182-83) that Dayr al-Baramus evolved …

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Council Of Nicaea

COUNCIL OF NICAEA Nicaea was where the First Ecumenical Council was held in 325 a.d. The council assembled at the order of Emperor Constantine to discuss several dogmatic points, including the Arian heresy. The emperor allowed the bishops to use the imperial post to travel to the city of Nicaea. The council also discussed several …

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