emperor Constantius II

Sarapion Of Tmuis, Saint

SARAPION OF TMUIS, SAINT, or Serapion A fourth-century bishop of Tmuis who supported the orthodox patriarch Saint ATHANASIUS I THE APOSTOLIC in the Arian controversy (feast day, 21 March). Apparently he received a good education because Saint Jerome claims that the epithet Scholasticus was added to his name because of his eloquence and erudition. He …

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Roman Army

ROMAN ARMY Roman troops were already present in Egypt when the country was still ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy XII Auletes, who had been driven from his throne by the Alexandrian opposition, would hardly have been able to reenter Egypt without the military aid of the Roman legate Aulus Gabinius (55 B.C.). Since that …

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Julian The Apostate (332-363)

JULIAN THE APOSTATE (332-363) A roman emperor who attempted to restore the classical pantheon. Julian was born in Constantinople, son of Julius Constantius and Basilina. With his half-brother Gallus, he survived the massacre that claimed many of the relatives of Emperor Constantine I on 9 September 337, including their father and elder brother. Julian was, …

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Athanasius I

ATHANASIUS I The Apostolic Saint, twentieth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (326-373). Athanasius’ life has been treated in detail by numerous authors. These sources can be categorized as follows: (1) the writings of Athanasius himself, which should be considered the most authentic of the sources. These include his historical tracts, encyclicals, an apology …

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Antichrist

ANTICHRIST A term occurring first in Christian literature but as conception of a powerful being opposed to God at the end of the world found in earlier Jewish apocalyptic literature (e.g., D. 7:7ff.; 11:40). This probably originated in Iranian eschatology (the battle of Ahura Mazda with Angra Mainyu), and from there influenced Jewish apocalyptic writings. …

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Philostorgius

PHILOSTORGIUS An ecclesiastical historian, born about 368 in Cappadocia. He lived in Constantinople, where he wrote twelve books of ecclesiastical history covering the period about 300-425 (the death of the usurping emperor John), probably between 425 and 433. Philostorgius was a supporter of the semi-Arian leader Eunomius of Cyzicus, and wrote his history from that …

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Homoeans

HOMOEANS A group forming the middle ground of the anti-Nicene and anti-Athanasian party in the last decade of the reign of Emperor Constantius II (337-361); their views came closest to those of the emperor. Under their leader, ACACIUS OF CAESAREA, they held that Christ was “like God.” They repudiated all reference to ousia (“substance”) in …

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Ethiopian Heresies And Theological Controversies

ETHIOPIAN HERESIES AND THEOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES Although isolated from the Christian world until the twentieth century, Ethiopia has had knowledge, and even followers, of the major heresies that caused schism and created ecclesiastical minorities in the early history of the Christian church. A letter from the emperor Constantius II (337-361) (Athanasius,1857, cols. 636-37) shows a reasonable …

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Abbot

ABBOT. In the ancient monastic sources (APOPHTHEGMATA PATRUM, HISTORIA MONACHORUM IN AEGYPTO, PALLADIUS Historia Lausiaca, etc.), the name of a monk is generally preceded by the Greek word abbas or abba, the cognate of the Coptic apa (Sahidic) or abba (Bohairic), the Arabic aba or anba. This is clearly the Aramaic and Syriac ab in …

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