INCENSE Incense is a substance producing a pleasant aroma when burned. Yuhanna ibn Abi Zakariyya ibn Sabba‘ (14th century), the author of a book called Precious Pearl in the Ecclesiastic Science, mentioned that four sorts of incense are permitted in the Coptic Church: sandarac, benzoin, aloe, and olibanum. The first had never been offered to …

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HOSANNA Hebrew word, meaning “save us.” In the Coptic liturgy, it relates to Palm Sunday. In the 12th century, Abu al-Makarim wrote his book, the History of the Churches and Monasteries in Egypt. The feast of Palm Sunday was a special ceremony in his church (Church of the Holy Virgin in Haret Zuwylah in Old …

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