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Nubian Liturgy

NUBIAN LITURGY Even at present Nubian liturgy remains obscure. It is evident, however, that Byzantine-Greek, Coptic, and native Nubian traditions all shared in the creation of a liturgical life of richness and intensity among the Nubian Christians of the Nile Valley between 500 and 1450. Evidence comes from two main sources. The first is the …

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Nubian Church Organization

NUBIAN CHURCH ORGANIZATION The three Nubian kingdoms of NOBATIA, MAKOURIA, and ‘ALWA were converted to Christianity at various times in the sixth century. There seems to have been rival missionary activity of Monophysites and Melchites in all three kingdoms, with differing results. Nobatia and ‘Alwa were both converted by the Monophysites from the beginning, while …

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Medieval Nubian Inscriptions

MEDIEVAL NUBIAN INSCRIPTIONS Literary records of medieval Nubia are few and fragmentary, but archaeology has yielded a large number of short written texts, mostly of a religious nature, that were inscribed on house and church walls, on pottery vessels and fragments, and on tombstones. There are medieval texts in at least four different languages: Coptic, …

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NIKIOU A Greek name of a city in the Egyptian Delta in the area of Minuf. Traditionally, the city was named after the governor who founded it. Nikiou was known in Coptic as psati (Pshati) and in Arabic literature, it was called Niqyus or Ibshadi. The location of Nikiou is a matter of some debate. …

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Octagon-Domed Church

OCTAGON-DOMED CHURCH A type of church building that first makes its appearance in the first half of the eleventh century. Outside of Egypt it is to be found in Greece, and from the twelfth century, in Islamic architecture. In this type of building the whole naos area is roofed over by a single dome, carried …

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NUN A member of a female religious order living under vows of chastity and asceticism. With the dissemination of Christian ideals in the apostolic age, many widows and virgins separated themselves from society to worship God, initially in seclusion and later in communal groups (cf. 1 Tm. 5:9-10). Cenobitic conventual monasticism can therefore be said …

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Omar Toussoun (1872-1944)

OMAR TOUSSOUN (1872-1944) A prince of the Egyptian royal family, scholar, and philanthropist. There were few aspects of Egyptian progress that did not benefit from his support and his practical encouragement. He was particularly devoted to the interests of agriculture and agricultural workers. He was deeply interested in the history and the geography of Egypt …

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Olympiodorus Of Thebes

OLYMPIODORUS OF THEBES A fifth-century historian who wrote a work comprising twenty-two books that was dedicated to Emperor Theodosius II. It deals with the years 407-435 and is based on his own experiences (e.g., whith the Blemmyes in Nubia). BIBLIOGRAPHY Baldwin, B. “Olympiodoros of Thebes.” L’antiquité classique 49 (1980):212-31. Moravcsik, G. Byzantino-Turcica, 2nd ed., Vol. …

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OFFERTORY In the early church, donations of bread and wine were made by the laity to be consecrated in the eucharistic service, and the term “offertory” came also to mean the prayers said by the priest during this part of the Divine Liturgy. In his epistle to the Corinthians, Saint Clement of Rome (fl. c. …

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