Djeme

Dayr Apa Phoibammon

DAYR APA PHOIBAMMON History The monastery of Phoibammon is situated between MADINAT HABU and Armant, at the end of a narrow wadi ending in a circular cliff about 80 feet (25 m) high. It was excavated in 1947 and 1948 by Charles Bachatly, secretary-general of the SOCIETY OF COPTIC ARCHAEOLOGY. Graffiti on the cliff face …

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Dayr Epiphanius

DAYR EPIPHANIUS A small semi-anchoritic community that existed around 580-640 on the “Holy Hill of Djeme” (Madinat Habu) in Western Thebes in Upper Egypt. The hermits who dwelled there had, like those in Kellia, Nitria, and Scetis, formed a laura around the cell of a Monophysite Coptic anchorite. In this case, it was Epiphanius who …

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Archives

ARCHIVES There were already archives in Egypt in the pre-Christian period, according to Helck (1975). In Christian times, too, there were official and semiofficial Greek archives: those of soldiers, priests, manual workers, and other private individuals. An attempt to reassemble such archives was announced by Heichelheim in 1932. In these archives documents were preserved, in …

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Coptic Law

COPTIC LAW By “Coptic law” we understand the particularities of legal practice evidenced in documents written in the Coptic language, from roughly the sixth to the ninth century (Steinwenter, 1955; Schiller, 1932a, 1957, 1971a). The substance of the law is found in the combination of Greek, Coptic, and Arabic documents, but the present treatment rests …

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Correspondence Of Bishops

CORRESPONDENCE OF BISHOPS The inhabitants of Christian Egypt reveal a delight in writing, so far as they were able to write. Many transactions, especially those of legal content, were fixed in written form. Among the papyri and ostraca found in numerous archives and deriving from the antiquities trade, there are letters from bishops to the …

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Theban Legion

THEBAN LEGION According to Saint Eucherius, legion consisting of 6,600 Christian soldiers who had been recruited in Thebes (the Thebaid) in Upper Egypt as part of the Roman army. Three detailed manuscripts tell of the martyrdom of the Theban Legion, mainly at Agaunum (Saint Maurice-en-Valais), during the reign of Emperor DIOCLETIAN (284-305) and his co-emperor …

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Hegumenos

HEGUMENOS A title given to some presbyters, as a rule used together with the title presbyteros. The term derives from the Greek hegoumenos, whose primary meaning was “ruler,” well known in pagan Greek and also used by Christian authors to denote a bishop. In late Greek texts from Egypt and in Coptic texts, this title …

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Persians In Egypt

PERSIANS IN EGYPT (619-629) The last great clash between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanid empire (602-628), begun by Chosroes II Parvez (590-628) against Phocas (602-610) and continued against Heraclius (610-634), at first brought brilliant successes to the Sassanids. The culmination was the conquest of Egypt with its Byzantine administrative districts: Aegyptos, Augustamnike, Arkadia, …

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