divinity of Christ

The Relationship of St. Shenoute of Atripe with His Contemporary Patriarchs of Alexandria

The Relationship of St. Shenoute of Atripe with His Contemporary Patriarchs of Alexandria WHEN WE SPEAK about the relationship of St. Shenoute with the Alexandrian patriarchs, we speak indeed about a traditional relationship between Coptic monasticism and the official church of Egypt. The basis of this relationship was already established at the dawn of Coptic …

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Filioque

FILIOQUE Latin, meaning “and [from] the son.” In the sixth century, Arian barbarians (Goth and Visigoth) invaded the western empire and introduced many heretical dogmas and expressions. In 589 a.d., the Council of Toledo included details in the Nicene Creed concerning the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son in order …

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Apollinarianism

APOLLINARIANISM It is the heresy of Apollinarius or Apollinaris (c. 310-c. 390), who in about 360 became bishop of Laodicea, a Hellenistic city in the Roman province of Syria. Apollinarius adopted the Alexandrian-Nicene teaching concerning the Son of God. He maintained that the Second Person  of the Blessed Trinity is coeternal and coequal with God …

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Shenute I

SHENUTE I The fifty-fifth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (858-880). Shenute, or Sanutios in Coptic and Shinudah in modern Arabic, was a native of the village of al-Batanun, today a village in the governorate of Shibn al-Kom, the capital city of the Minufiyyah province in Lower Egypt. Little is known about his early …

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Monarchianism

MONARCHIANISM A movement in the trinitarian controversy in the early church that denied the distinction of Persons in the relationship between Father and Son within the Godhead. It became a heresy. There were two quite separate groups of Monarchians. Modalist Monarchians claimed that God was a single and differentiated being whose monarchy was nothing else …

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Eschatology

ESCHATOLOGY The study of the last things, of the destiny of individual persons, and, more broadly, of society, of the world, and of the universe. In the culture of the pagan Greco-Roman world, concern with the destiny of the individual after death received comparatively little attention outside the mystery religions, but Hellenistic speculation on successive …

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Incarnation

INCARNATION A central doctrine of Christian theology affirming that the eternal Son of God, who is the Divine Logos and second HYPOSTASIS of the Holy Trinity, took human flesh from the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary in order to accomplish the work of our salvation. The doctrine is held to be a mystery difficult …

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