Hisbah, Or Ihtisab

HISBAH, or ihtisab The “promotion of good and the forbidding of evil” as one of the principal religious duties of every Muslim and as the duty of a specially appointed person in each town, particularly in regard to the supervision of markets, artisans, and moral behavior in public. This person, called the muhtasib, was concerned …

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Fatimids And The Copts

FATIMIDS AND THE COPTS It is difficult to give a complete picture of the situation of the Copts under the Fatimid dynasty (972-1171). Generally speaking, the caliphs were very tolerant toward them, except during two very tense periods that even brought persecution: under al-HAKIM (996-1021) and during the reign of the last caliph, al-‘Adid. With …

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Mamluks And The Copts

MAMLUKS AND THE COPTS Under the rule of the Mamluk dynasty (1250-1517), the Copts were protected by their skill in handling taxation and state finances. Occasionally, as a political subterfuge, the Mamluk sultans dismissed them from office for their refusal to convert to Islam, but Copts were soon again employed to save the state from …

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