Dhimmis

Hisbah, Or Ihtisab

HISBAH, or ihtisab The “promotion of good and the forbidding of evil” as one of the principal religious duties of every Muslim and as the duty of a specially appointed person in each town, particularly in regard to the supervision of markets, artisans, and moral behavior in public. This person, called the muhtasib, was concerned …

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Fatimids And The Copts

FATIMIDS AND THE COPTS It is difficult to give a complete picture of the situation of the Copts under the Fatimid dynasty (972-1171). Generally speaking, the caliphs were very tolerant toward them, except during two very tense periods that even brought persecution: under al-HAKIM (996-1021) and during the reign of the last caliph, al-‘Adid. With …

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Mamluks And The Copts

MAMLUKS AND THE COPTS Under the rule of the Mamluk dynasty (1250-1517), the Copts were protected by their skill in handling taxation and state finances. Occasionally, as a political subterfuge, the Mamluk sultans dismissed them from office for their refusal to convert to Islam, but Copts were soon again employed to save the state from …

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