Dead Sea

Apocryphal Literature

APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE Properly speaking, this consists of the so-called Old Testament pseudepigrapha. The Old Testament books called “apocryphal” by Protestants and “deuterocanonical” by Roman Catholics were until recently included in the biblical canon of the Coptic church. Only at the beginning of the twentieth century and by order of CYRIL V (1874-1927) were the following …

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Antichrist

ANTICHRIST A term occurring first in Christian literature but as conception of a powerful being opposed to God at the end of the world found in earlier Jewish apocalyptic literature (e.g., D. 7:7ff.; 11:40). This probably originated in Iranian eschatology (the battle of Ahura Mazda with Angra Mainyu), and from there influenced Jewish apocalyptic writings. …

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Hexapla And Tetrapla

HEXAPLA AND TETRAPLA Two editions of the Old Testament by ORIGEN. The Bible was the centre of Origen’s religion, and no church father lived more in it than he did. The foundation, however, of all study of the Bible was the establishment of an accurate text. Fairly early in his career (c. 220) Origen was …

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Gnosis

GNOSIS A Greek word, derived from the Indo-European root gno, also preserved in English “know” and Sanskrit jnana, “knowledge.” “Gnostic” comes from the adjective gnostikos (scientific), which in classical times was never used as a substantive. The only ones who called themselves Gnostics were members of the Jewish, later superficially Christianized, group of the Gnostikoi, …

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Coptic Music

COPTIC MUSIC  Description of the Corpus and Present Musical Practice The following remarks pertain only to the music of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Other Christian churches in Egypt (Greek Orthodox, Coptic Catholic, Protestant, etc.) have their own musical practices. Coptic music, an expression of a proud and constant faith, still lives today among the Copts …

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Ebionites

EBIONITES Judaizing Christians who developed into a separate sect by the last quarter of the second century and had some influence on the early history of the church in Egypt. The term “Ebion” is probably derived from the Hebrew ebyon (the poor). It is an attribute of those who serve the Lord, in contrast with …

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