DAYR APA JEREMIAH

Archimandrite

ARCHIMANDRITE A term of Greek origin (archein, to rule, and mandra, fold, byre) denoting the superior of a monastery. Although its precise application is the subject of controversy, one thing is certain: it was a higher-ranking term than others such as father, PROESTOS, and HEGUMENOS. The title “archimandrite” emerged in the Syrian and Mesopotamian regions …

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Bawit

BAWIT History The town of Bawit is located between Dayrut and Asyut. The site is famous through the excavations carried out there at the beginning of the twentieth century, the results of which were important for the history of Coptic art. From the numerous inscriptions discovered there, it is known that it was dedicated to …

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Hegumenos

HEGUMENOS A title given to some presbyters, as a rule used together with the title presbyteros. The term derives from the Greek hegoumenos, whose primary meaning was “ruler,” well known in pagan Greek and also used by Christian authors to denote a bishop. In late Greek texts from Egypt and in Coptic texts, this title …

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Coptic Portraiture

COPTIC PORTRAITURE The tradition of portraiture that developed in pharaonic Egypt and in Rome continued in Coptic Egypt among many other elements of pharaonic and classical art. Portraits were created in stone, in textiles, and especially in paint— on wood panels, on fabric, and on walls. Most of these were associated with funerary art. Portraiture …

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Hor

HOR An obscure fifth-sixth-century holy person who was the companion of Ambrosius (feast day: 23 Tubah). Several Coptic inscriptions from DAYR APA JEREMIAH at Saqqara mention him, always in the company of Ambrosius, a person of whom we know nothing at all (Quibell, 1907-1908, Vol. 3, inscriptions nos. 26, 36, 76; 1908- 1910, Vol. 4, …

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Glass, Coptic

COPTIC GLASS The glass of the Coptic period—third to twelfth centuries—was the heir to a long tradition of glassmaking in Egypt. While Coptic glass exhibited some regional variations, it did not differ substantially from glass in neighboring areas. Glass was manufactured in Egypt from about 1500 B.C.; it reached its acme of beauty in the …

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Painting, Coptic Mural

PAINTING, COPTIC MURAL This article discusses painting on the walls of houses, Roman camps, tombs and funerary chapels, monasteries, and churches in Egypt from the third century to the thirteenth. For painting on panels see ICONS; PORTRAITURE. The mural painting had a long tradition in the pharaonic period. It continued in the Coptic period, generally …

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