Dayr al-Bahri

Dayr Apa Phoibammon

DAYR APA PHOIBAMMON History The monastery of Phoibammon is situated between MADINAT HABU and Armant, at the end of a narrow wadi ending in a circular cliff about 80 feet (25 m) high. It was excavated in 1947 and 1948 by Charles Bachatly, secretary-general of the SOCIETY OF COPTIC ARCHAEOLOGY. Graffiti on the cliff face …

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Dayr Al-Bakhit (Luxor)

DAYR AL-BAKHIT (Luxor) History The name of this monastery could only be the Arabic transcription of a Coptic word meaning “of the north,” in contrast to Dayr al-Qibli (Monastery of the South), the name given to the temple of Hadrian to the south of Madinat Habu. This appellation could be older than the typically Arabic …

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Archives

ARCHIVES There were already archives in Egypt in the pre-Christian period, according to Helck (1975). In Christian times, too, there were official and semiofficial Greek archives: those of soldiers, priests, manual workers, and other private individuals. An attempt to reassemble such archives was announced by Heichelheim in 1932. In these archives documents were preserved, in …

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Dayr Al-Rumi

DAYR AL-RUMI History On a rocky spur at the mouth of the Valley of the Queens, less than a mile west of the ancient town of Jeme (present-day MADINAT HABU), a tomb cut into the rock forms the kernel of this so-called dayr. It is the inhabitants of the region who gave it the name …

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Hegumenos

HEGUMENOS A title given to some presbyters, as a rule used together with the title presbyteros. The term derives from the Greek hegoumenos, whose primary meaning was “ruler,” well known in pagan Greek and also used by Christian authors to denote a bishop. In late Greek texts from Egypt and in Coptic texts, this title …

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Coptic Portraiture

COPTIC PORTRAITURE The tradition of portraiture that developed in pharaonic Egypt and in Rome continued in Coptic Egypt among many other elements of pharaonic and classical art. Portraits were created in stone, in textiles, and especially in paint— on wood panels, on fabric, and on walls. Most of these were associated with funerary art. Portraiture …

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Coptic Medical Papyri

COPTIC MEDICAL PAPYRI Among the voluminous Coptic medical literature, only remnants have survived, as is shown by the high numbers of the extant numbered pages. These remnants have come down to us on parchment, on papyrus, on ostraca, on paper, and on walls (as graffiti). Except for the second parchment manuscript (see below) the texts …

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Painting, Coptic Mural

PAINTING, COPTIC MURAL This article discusses painting on the walls of houses, Roman camps, tombs and funerary chapels, monasteries, and churches in Egypt from the third century to the thirteenth. For painting on panels see ICONS; PORTRAITURE. The mural painting had a long tradition in the pharaonic period. It continued in the Coptic period, generally …

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