Cyrenaica

Sabellianism

SABELLIANISM Sabellianism is named after its originator, Sabellius from Cyrenaica. The followers of this heresy believed that God was one substance but three activities. He manifested Himself as the Father in the Old Testament, as the Son in the New Testament, and as the Holy Spirit in Church life. Dionysius of Alexandria condemned this heresy …

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Zeno

ZENO A Roman emperor (474-491). An Isaurian chieftain by birth, he came to Constantinople and in 466 or 467 married the daughter of Emperor LEO I (457-474). He changed his almost unpronounceable name, Tarasicodissa, to Zeno; and when Leo I died in February 474, he maneuvered his way into becoming a joint ruler with his …

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Monophysitism

MONOPHYSITISM The doctrine that the incarnate Christ is one Person and has one divine nature as opposed to the orthodox doctrine that he is one Person and has two natures, one human and one divine. The rift between the Monophysites, including the Coptic, Syrian, Ethiopian, and Armenian churches, and the Orthodox Church has divided Eastern …

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Sabellianism

SABELLIANISM The most sophisticated form of modalist Monarchian opinions concerning the godhead and named after its originator, Sabellius “the Libyan” (fl. c. 220). Nothing is known of Sabellius, except that he was in all probability a Christian from one of the cities of Cyrenaica, where his opinions continued to be supported throughout the third century, …

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Greek Towns In Egypt

GREEK TOWNS IN EGYPT Long before the conquest of Alexander the Great, Greeks had come to Egypt as merchants, soldiers, and settlers during the era of the “Greek colonization” (seventh century B.C.). As a result, NAUCRATIS, in the Delta, was established under the Twenty-sixth Dynasty as a Greek town complete with the traditional set of …

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Pentapolis

PENTAPOLIS This area derives its name from the five Greek cities of Cyrenaica: Berenice-Euesperides/Benghazi, Arsinoe- Taucheira (Teucheria)/Tukrah, Ptolemaïs/Tulmaythah, Apollonia/Sozousa/Marsa Susah, and Cyrene / ‘Ayn Shahhat. The history of the Pentapolis was dominated by three centers of attraction and potential peril: the Mediterranean, Egypt, and the desert hinterland populated by Berber tribes having strong relations, often …

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Mark, Saint

MARK, SAINT One of the Twelve Apostles of Christ, traditionally regarded as the author of the Gospel of Mark and the first patriarch of the Coptic church (feast day: 30 Baramudah). The meager historical sources on Saint Mark’s life have given rise to conflicting accounts about his personality and even about his Gospel. Whereas liberal …

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Metropolitan Sees

METROPOLITAN SEES The ancient privileges of the See of Alexandria, as confirmed by the sixth canon of the Council of NICAEA (325), placed the provinces of Egypt, Libya, and the Pentapolis in Cyrenaica under the jurisdiction of the bishop of Alexandria, although these provinces had their own metropolitans. Ancient and Medieval Times The Metropolitan See …

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Monarchianism

MONARCHIANISM A movement in the trinitarian controversy in the early church that denied the distinction of Persons in the relationship between Father and Son within the Godhead. It became a heresy. There were two quite separate groups of Monarchians. Modalist Monarchians claimed that God was a single and differentiated being whose monarchy was nothing else …

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Acacian Schism

ACACIAN SCHISM, rupture of communion between Rome and Constantinople in the period 484-519. Behind the dispute between the two sees lay issues concerning the relations of both with Alexandria and diverging attitudes toward the Council of CHALCEDON. The death of TIMOTHY II AELURUS (“the Cat”), the anti-Chalcedonian patriarch of Alexandria, failed to end the schism …

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