Councils

ANGELS

ANGELS The scope of this article.—The passages in the apostolic writings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in HDB …

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Theology And Liturgy Bibliography

THEOLOGY AND LITURGY BIBLIOGRAPHY Abdallah, Alfonso. L’ordinamento Liturgico di Gabriele V-88 Patriarca Copto. Cairo: Ain Shams Press, 1962. ‘Abd al-Masih Salib al-Mas‘udi. Al-Khuulaji al-Muqaddas. Cairo: n.p., 1902. Alcock, Antony. The Life of Saint Samuel of Kalamun by Isaac the Presbyter. London: Aris & Philips, 1983. Allen, Pauline, and C. Datema. “Leontius presbyter of Constantinople.” Byzantina …

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Canon

CANON The word canon in Coptic tradition has more than one meaning. It means a type of hymn that should be recited by two choirs, such as the Canon of the Twelfth Hour and Good Friday. It means also the “canon-law” or codified law governing a church. Thus, there are the Apostolic canons and the …

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Henoticon

HENOTICON When Emperor Zeno returned to Constantinople in 482, he issued his famous Henoticon to the Christians of the world in Alexandria, Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis. In it, he confirmed the faith of the Fathers of the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople; nothing, however, is mentioned concerning the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. Zeno condemned …

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Church Hierarchy

CHURCH HIERARCHY The hierarchy is the collective body of the ecclesiastical ranks including bishops (patriarchs, metropolitans, and bishops), priests (presbyter and hegumen), and deacons (archdeacons and deacons). The rite of ordination of each rank prescribes the role of each member. The ecumenical councils issued several decrees in order to organize their work. In the fifth …

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Maqara (Active Before 1350)

MAQARA (active before 1350) A Monk, canonist. Maqara was a monk of the Monastery of St. John the Little in the Wadi al-Natrun who dedicated great energy to gathering the canons of the Coptic Orthodox Church—as well as materials from other ecclesial communities—into one great Arabic-language compendium. This compendium includes the canonical collections attributed to …

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Christology

CHRISTOLOGY Christology is the study of all that pertains to Christ. Several dogmas were discussed throughout the history of the Church by the leaders and theologians of the Church concerning the nature of Christ; whether he is God or merely became a son by adoption (Bishop Paul of Samosata). The divine nature was discussed during …

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