Cosmas

Cosmas Indicopleustes

COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES The name given to an anonymous Nestorian author of the twelve-book Christian Topography, written a few years before the Second Council of CONSTANTINOPLE (553). Cosmas was an Egyptian merchant, probably from Alexandria, who plied his trade in Alexandria, the Red Sea port of Adulis (Sawakin), and Ceylon (Sri Lanka), calling at the island …

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Cycle

CYCLE One of a group of works in Coptic literature dealing with episodes in the life of one or more specific characters, mostly saints and martyrs. There are two basic types of cycle: homiletic and hagiographical. The difference lies simply in the different literary forms used, with the homiletic cycles being made up of texts …

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Coptic Woodwork

COPTIC WOODWORK The functional objects and sculpture made of wood in Egypt from the fourth century into the Middle Ages. By virtue of its geological past, Egypt originally had plentiful and varied supplies of wood, but it was rapidly used. Shortages were already evident in the pharaonic period. Ptolemaic rulers put into operation a policy …

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Cosmas III (The Patriarch)

COSMAS III The fifty-eighth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (920-932). Cosmas apparently succeeded GABRIEL I without complications about his selection. His life is treated very briefly in the HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS, despite his relatively long reign of twelve years. Nothing on his internal relations with the Islamic administration is cited in his …

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Cosmas I

COSMAS I The forty-fourth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (730-731) (feast day: 30 Ba’unah). He was a native of the town of Bana, near Samannud in the Gharbiyyah Province. Little is known about his secular life before he took the monastic vow in the wilderness of Anba Maqar. Cosmas had a monastic life …

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Saints Cosmas And Damian

SAINTS COSMAS AND DAMIAN Two doctors and brothers who suffered martyrdom at the time of the Diocletian persecutions (feast day: 22 Hatur). They were called anargyroi (silverless) because they did not ask money from the sick whom they cured. The Byzantine church, however, gradually came to distinguish three pairs of brothers named Cosmas and Damian, …

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Yuhanna

YUHANNA The scribe of Shenute I. Originally the spiritual son and disciple of MINA I (767-774), the forty-seventh patriarch, Yuhanna later became the scribe of SHENUTE I (858-880), fifty-fifth patriarch. Apparently he lived to be a centenarian and wrote the biographies of contemporary patriarchs, nine in number, including, besides the aforementioned two, JOHN IV (775-799), …

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Tmuis

TMUIS A city in the Eastern Delta, now known as Tall ‘Abd al-Salam. It lies southwest of the village of Timay in the province of Daqahliyyah approximately 12 miles (19 km) southeast of al- MANSURAH. Tmuis was one of the first Christian cities of Egypt. Ammonius was bishop of Tmuis before the middle of the …

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