Coptic ostraca

Hajir Idfu

HAJIR IDFU An important but little-known site lying about 2.5 miles (4 km) west of Idfu. Its importance for Egyptology has already been shown (Gabra, 1977). Moreover, it is not without interest for Coptology. The provenance of many Coptic manuscripts in the British Library, whose colophons bear dates from 981 to 1005, is known to …

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Persians In Egypt

PERSIANS IN EGYPT (619-629) The last great clash between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanid empire (602-628), begun by Chosroes II Parvez (590-628) against Phocas (602-610) and continued against Heraclius (610-634), at first brought brilliant successes to the Sassanids. The culmination was the conquest of Egypt with its Byzantine administrative districts: Aegyptos, Augustamnike, Arkadia, …

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Papyrus Collections

PAPYRUS COLLECTIONS Since the seventeenth-century scholars and travelers to Egypt have brought manuscripts to Europe. The papyri, whether they came to light in spectacular finds or as individual discoveries, whether they were uncovered in scientific excavations or through the diggings of thieves, went into papyrus collections, either directly or through dealers (see PAPYRUS DISCOVERIES). Not …

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Prosopography

PROSOPOGRAPHY A collection of biographical sketches. A prosopography of the persons named in the documents of Egypt, both Greek and Coptic, with information—so far as known—about their parents and their vocation, is a desideratum for various disciplines in the study of antiquity. It would serve for the dating and localizing of the texts so far …

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Qus

QUS A town known in the era of the pharaohs as Ksa or Ksi. From the Greek period onward (third century B.C.) it was known as Apollinopolis Parva. It evolved by taking advantage of the activities of QIFT, which the Greek kings had made the starting point for roads linking the Nile Valley and the …

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Mummification

MUMMIFICATION There is evidence for mummification in Egypt from the beginning of historical times. Herodotus and Diodorus report on the different ways of mummifying. The practice arose from the idea that preservation of bodily integrity is the presupposition for life after death. This idea is evidently also the reason for statements in martyr legends of …

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Ostracon

OSTRACON In the Hellenic period a shard or an animal’s shoulder blade. It was employed in a city-state’s assembly when a vote of ostracism was taken, and was customarily the writing material for nonliterary documents, particularly those of an economic character. In the later Roman and Byzantine eras, in Egypt the ostracon came to be …

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