Coptic ostraca

Bawit in the Twenty-first Century: Bibliography 1997-2014

Bawit in the Twenty-first Century: Bibliography 1997-2014 Since the rediscovery of the Bawit monastery in 1900, numerous investigations have covered diverse fields of research. Marie-Helene Rutschowscaya established a bibliography of the main titles, following the chronological order of publication: Rutschowscaya, M.-H. 1995. “Le monastere de Baouit. Etat des publica­tions.” In C. Fluck, L. Langener, S. …

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Coptic Museum

COPTIC MUSEUM A museum founded in Cairo in 1902. The first exhibition of Coptic art in Egypt took place sometime at the end of the nineteenth century in the Bulaq Museum, the precursor of the actual Museum of Egyptian Antiquities. The collection was exhibited in a hall called “La Salle copte” before it was moved …

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Dayr Apa Phoibammon

DAYR APA PHOIBAMMON History The monastery of Phoibammon is situated between MADINAT HABU and Armant, at the end of a narrow wadi ending in a circular cliff about 80 feet (25 m) high. It was excavated in 1947 and 1948 by Charles Bachatly, secretary-general of the SOCIETY OF COPTIC ARCHAEOLOGY. Graffiti on the cliff face …

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Archives

ARCHIVES There were already archives in Egypt in the pre-Christian period, according to Helck (1975). In Christian times, too, there were official and semiofficial Greek archives: those of soldiers, priests, manual workers, and other private individuals. An attempt to reassemble such archives was announced by Heichelheim in 1932. In these archives documents were preserved, in …

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Coptic Law

COPTIC LAW By “Coptic law” we understand the particularities of legal practice evidenced in documents written in the Coptic language, from roughly the sixth to the ninth century (Steinwenter, 1955; Schiller, 1932a, 1957, 1971a). The substance of the law is found in the combination of Greek, Coptic, and Arabic documents, but the present treatment rests …

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Friedrich Bilabel (1888-1948)

FRIEDRICH BILABEL (1888-1948) A German papyrologist. He was a professor at Heidelberg and edited nearly 150 papyri, including Coptic and Arabic papyri, publishing Griechische, koptische und arabische Texte zur Religion und religiösen Literatur in Ägyptens Spätzeit, with A. Grohmann (Heidelberg, 1934) and Zwei Urkunden aus dem bischöflichen Archiv von Panopolis in Ägypten (Heidelberg, 1935). He …

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Correspondence Of Bishops

CORRESPONDENCE OF BISHOPS The inhabitants of Christian Egypt reveal a delight in writing, so far as they were able to write. Many transactions, especially those of legal content, were fixed in written form. Among the papyri and ostraca found in numerous archives and deriving from the antiquities trade, there are letters from bishops to the …

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Audentia Episcopalis

AUDENTIA EPISCOPALIS The adjudication by a bishop of civil matters in dispute (see Codex Jus-tinianus 1.4), as well as of disciplinary matters among the clergy. On the basis of 1 Corinthians 6:1 the Christians—like the Jews—were not to conduct lawsuits before the judges of the pagan state. Disputes were, rather, to be settled within the …

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Theban Legion

THEBAN LEGION According to Saint Eucherius, legion consisting of 6,600 Christian soldiers who had been recruited in Thebes (the Thebaid) in Upper Egypt as part of the Roman army. Three detailed manuscripts tell of the martyrdom of the Theban Legion, mainly at Agaunum (Saint Maurice-en-Valais), during the reign of Emperor DIOCLETIAN (284-305) and his co-emperor …

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Excommunication

EXCOMMUNICATION An exclusion from communion. The Coptic church canons contain lists of offenses that lead to exclusion from communion. The extant ostraca from around 600 show how bishops executed the punishment. As soon as a bishop received information of an offense against the church’s canons or the Christian moral law, he notified the person concerned—after …

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