John of Shmoun and Coptic Identity

John of Shmoun and Coptic Identity After the Council of Chalcedon in ad 451 and in particular after the Arab conquest of Egypt in ad 641, the need to demonstrate Coptic self­ identification became more important than before.[1] Usually, there is the need to stress one’s identity and define or form its features when one […]

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The History of Christianity in Egypt

The History of Christianity in Egypt THE TERM COPT COMES DIRECTLY FROM THE ARABIC QBT, which appears to derive from the Greek aigyptos (Egypt) / aigyptioi (Egyptians), a phonetic corruption of the ancient Egyptian word Hikaptah, one of the names of Memphis. Initially the word described a non-Arabic-speaking non-Muslim. By implication, a Copt was also […]

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Coptology

COPTOLOGY A scientific discipline in Oriental studies that investigates the language and culture of Egypt and Nubia in the widest sense: literature, religion, history, archaeology, and art. Its range extends from late antiquity to the Middle Ages, or even down to the present. It touches on and intersects with a number of neighboring disciplines. The […]

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Coptic Language And Literature Bibliography

COPTIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE BIBLIOGRAPHY Biedenkopf-Ziehner, Anne. “Koptologische Literaturubersicht, 1967/68.” Enchoria 2 (1972): 103-136; 6 (1976): 93-119; 10 (1980): 151-183. Emmel, Stephen. “A Report on Progress in the Study of Coptic Literature, 1996-2004.” In Huitieme congres international d’etudes coptes (Paris 2004) I. Bilans et perspectives 2000-2004, ed. Anne Boud’hors and Denyse Vaillancourt, 173-204. Cahiers de […]

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Greek Transcriptions

GREEK TRANSCRIPTIONS The rendering of Egyptian proper names into Greek characters was a first step toward the writing of Egyptian in an alphabetical script, that is, toward the creation of the Coptic script (see PRE-COPTIC). These proper names are mainly thousands of Egyptian anthroponyms, toponyms, and temple names, as well as names of gods, divine […]

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Coptic Literature

COPTIC LITERATURE Comparatively little Coptic literature, which is almost entirely religious, has survived. Coptic literature flourished from the fourth to the ninth century. The 10th and the 11th centuries did not witness new literary works; literary activity was limited to editing and compiling older works. Most of the Coptic literature is written in codices, the […]

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Absolution

ABSOLUTION The Absolution is a prayer recited by a priest begging from God the remission of the sins of the people or of an individual repentant in accordance with the authority given in the Gospels (Matt. 16:18, 18:18; John 20:23). In the Coptic language, the word for this prayer means “freedom.” A special feast for […]

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Dictionaries

DICTIONARIES From the time when the Copts, like other nations or linguistic entities, felt the need to have at their disposal in writing the equivalents, exact or approximate, of the words of their language, attempts were made to compose modest lists of bilingual vocabulary; these may justly be considered the ancestors of modern Coptic dictionaries. […]

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Coptological Studies

COPTOLOGICAL STUDIES Coptological studies may be divided into several periods. The oldest began in the first Christian centuries, when the Greek alphabet with the additional letters from demotic was used to elevate the spoken Egyptian language into a written language. This made it possible for many Egyptians to read the Old and New Testaments or […]

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