clergy

Coptological Studies

COPTOLOGICAL STUDIES Coptological studies may be divided into several periods. The oldest began in the first Christian centuries, when the Greek alphabet with the additional letters from demotic was used to elevate the spoken Egyptian language into a written language. This made it possible for many Egyptians to read the Old and New Testaments or …

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Confraternity

CONFRATERNITY As in other Christian countries of late antiquity, confraternities, or guilds, were active in Egypt. Their members were called, in Greek, philoponoi, or lovers of work, and spoudaioi, or zealots. The term philoponeion, confraternity, is used in documents in reference to its legal status. (The translation “infirmary” in Lampe’s Patristic Greek Lexicon is incorrect.) …

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Confession And Penitence

CONFESSION AND PENITENCE Sacramental confession consists of the avowal of one’s sins and faults, accompanied by genuine contrition, made to a priest for the purpose of obtaining absolution. Before Christ instituted this sacrament, He had given His disciples two relevant promises. When Peter recognized the true nature of Jesus Christ as the Messiah and acknowledged …

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Clerical Instruction

CLERICAL INSTRUCTION Education of the clergy of the Coptic church at a church college is a modern arrangement. In antiquity, every bishop had to provide for the education and installation of the clergy of his diocese (see ORDINATION, CLERICAL). The demands made of priests and deacons are known from the church canons (see CANONS, ECCLESIASTICAL), …

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Concomitance

CONCOMITANCE The doctrine held in the Roman Catholic church that the Body and Blood of Christ are together and simultaneously administered in communion even when a communicant receives one of the elements only. This doctrine is meant to justify the act of withdrawing the chalice from the laity ever since the twelfth century, and giving …

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Communion

COMMUNION The act of partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ. Communion is given many designations in the New Testament, such as “a new covenant” (Heb. 8:8-12), “eternal life” (Jn. 6:54), a “dwelling in Christ” (Jn. 5:56; 15:5-7), and a “sharing in the Body of Christ” (1 Cor. 10:16-17). In the early church, communion …

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Church Architecture In Egypt

CHURCH ARCHITECTURE IN EGYPT Only church buildings can be considered as a confessional type of structure—like the cultic buildings of pagans, Jews, and Muslims. Churches are a specifically Christian type of architecture. All other kinds of building—including funerary structures—have no confessional ties and take the same form among Christians as among people of other faiths …

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