CLEMENT

Gnosticism In Egypt

GNOSTICISM IN EGYPT The term “Gnosticism” was first coined in the 17th century to refer to an early Christian heresy described by the Church Father Irenaeus of Lyon in his five volumes Against Heresies (ca. 185). Historians of religions use the term to refer to a religion that probably developed around the turn of the …

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Dayr Buqtur Of Shu

DAYR BUQTUR OF SHU This monastery, of which nothing remains but the church rebuilt in the sixteenth century, is situated on the right bank of the Nile about 3 miles (5 km) north of Abnub, in the direction of DAYR AL-JABRAWI. It is dedicated to Saint VICTOR (Buqtur), a soldier in the fort of Shu …

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Theodotus

THEODOTUS A pupil of Valentinus the Gnostic who was active during the mid-second century. Some of his writings were excerpted by Clement of Alexandria, including an account of the Valentinian myth close to that of another Valentinian teacher, Ptolemy. Nothing is known of his life, but it is likely that Theodotus taught in Alexandria. GAWDAT …

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Origen (185-Ca. 254)

ORIGEN (185-ca. 254) Theologian. Origen is the most controversial person in Christian history. He is considered by the Fathers of the Church, such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Pamphile, as being a saint, while other Fathers such as Epiphanius, Theophilus (Patriarch of Alexandria), and Shenute (or Dioscorus) considered him a heretic. In the sixth century, …

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Penance

PENANCE The book of The Shepherd by Hermas (written in Rome in the mid-second century) mentioned baptism as the unique way for the remission of sins. But for Christians who committed a great sin after baptism, there is the metanoia or penance. Tertullian in the beginning of the third century published the first treatise On …

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