Civilization

ALMS

ALMS The duty of kindliness to and provision for the poor is constantly taught in the OT; in the later Jewish literature, and especially in Sirach and Tobit, it is even more emphatically asserted. It is clear that our Lord and the Apostolic Church taught this as a religious obligation with equal force. In the …

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ALEXANDRIA (Ἀλεξάνδρια)

ALEXANDRIA (Ἀλεξάνδρια) The city of Alexandria almost realized Alexander the Great’s dream of ‘a city surpassing anything previously existing’ (Plutarch, Alex. xxvi.). Planned by Dinocrates under the king’s supervision, and built on a neck of land two miles wide interposed between the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mareotis (Mariut), about 14 miles from the Canopic mouth …

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Children’s Burials from Antinoopolis: Discoveries from Recent Excavations

Children’s Burials from Antinoopolis: Discoveries from Recent Excavations Introduction Exploration of Antinoopolis—the well-known city founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian around ad 130 to honor his beloved Antinous after his legendary death in the Nile—began in the late nineteenth century.[1] In January 1896, Carl Schmidt (1868—1938), a German scholar, undertook a first small excavation in …

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Copt

COPT The term “Copt” and the adjective “Coptic” are derived from the Arabic qibt, which in turn is a corruption of the Greek term for the indigenous population of Egypt (Agyptos and Aigyptioi). Initially, after the Arab conquest of Egypt (639-641), the new rulers of the country used the word as a designation for the …

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Martin Krause (1930-)

MARTIN KRAUSE (1930-) A Coptologist and educator. He is the father of modern Coptology. He was born in Planitz near Zwickau, Germany. He studied theology, Egyptology, and the history of religion in Berlin and Leipzig and obtained a PhD (Berlin) in 1956 and a ThD (Leipzig) in 1958. In 1958, he joined the German Archaeological …

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Labib Habachi (1906-1984)

LABIB HABACHI (1906-1984) A renowned Egyptologist, he was born in Mansura where he was educated at the Coptic School. He studied Egyptology at Fouad I (later Cairo) University. In 1927, he visited the monasteries of Wadi al-Natrun, the Monastery of St. Antony, and the Monastery of St. Paul, and published, with Zaki Tawadrus, a book …

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Murad Kamil (1907-1975)

MURAD KAMIL (1907-1975) A Semitist, who taught at Cairo University, the Coptic Clerical College, the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies in Egypt, and the University of Freiburg in Germany. Professor Kamil played an important role in the negotiations between the Coptic Church and the Ethiopian Church. He wrote a book on the Coptic civilization (Cairo, …

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