CIVIL

Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith (ADL)

Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith (ADL) n. English Established in 1913, this division of B’nai B’rith works to combat hate, racism, and anti-Semitism. The ADL fights instances of discrimination against Jews and defends the civil, religious, and educational rights of all citizens. The ADL also works to expose hate groups and racist organizations, such as …

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American Jewish Congress (AJC)

American Jewish Congress (AJC) n. English A national volunteer organization, the American Jewish Congress protects fundamental constitutional freedoms by promoting legislation to preserve religious freedom and the separation of church and state. It also litigates cases with significant civil rights or First Amendment issues. noun Eisenberg, J., Scolnic, E., & Jewish Publication Society. (2001). The …

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ANSWER

ANSWER Passing over the very large number of occurrences of this word in the common sense of ‘reply’ (ἀποκρίνομαι, ἀπόκρισις), there are one or two interesting usages to note before we come to the most theologically significant use of the term. Thus in Tit 2:9 slaves are enjoined not to ‘answer again’ (AV; RV ‘gainsay,’ …

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ACHAIA

ACHAIA Achaia (Ἀχαΐα) was, in the classical period, merely a strip of fertile coast-land stretching along the south of the Gulf of Corinth, from the river Larisus, which separated it from Elis, to the Sythas, which divided it from Sicyonia, while the higher mountains of Arcadia bounded it on the south. Its whole length was …

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The Perfection, Or Sufficiency, Of Holy Scripture

The Perfection, Or Sufficiency, Of Holy Scripture Modern theology denies also the perfection, or sufficiency, of Holy Scripture. Zoeckler, for example, asserts concerning the “use of the Bible as normative or judicial authority in doctrinal controversies” that “the possibility must be admitted that the appeal to Scripture very often results in a partial and incomplete …

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The Monastery of Apollo at Bala’iza and Its Literary Texts

The Monastery of Apollo at Bala’iza and Its Literary Texts Dayr al-Bala’iza, situated at the edge of the desert on the west bank of the Nile some eighteen to nineteen kilometers south of Asyut, gained initial recognition among Coptic scholars through the large cache of manuscripts, both literary and documentary, discovered at the site during …

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Anba Isaac, Bishop of the Fayoum, al-Bahnasa, and Giza, 1834-81

Anba Isaac, Bishop of the Fayoum, al-Bahnasa, and Giza, 1834-81 Anba Isaac, the bishop of the Fayoum, holds a unique place in the history of the Coptic Church during the mid-nineteenth century. This standing is due, in part, to his massive diocese, which included three Egyptian gover­norates: Giza, the Fayoum, and Beni Suef. It is …

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Discerning the True Religion in Late Fourteenth-Century Egypt

Discerning the True Religion in Late Fourteenth-Century Egypt: Pages from the Dayr al-Muharraq Edition of al-Hawi by al-Makin Jirjis ibn al-‘Amid Introduction In recent years, Dayr al-Muharraq has shared some of its riches with the wider world through the publication of transcriptions of manuscripts from the monastery’s library. As examples, I can point to the …

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Copto-Arabic Literature

COPTO-ARABIC LITERATURE This entry consists of four parts. The first addresses the origins and development of the Arabic literature of the Copts. This is followed by introductions to three Copto-Arabic literary genres—hagiography, apocalyptic, and popular catechesis—for which texts are usually of anonymous authorship, and therefore unlikely to be otherwise addressed in a dictionary arranged largely …

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