churches of Alexandria

Christodoulus

CHRISTODOULUS The sixty-sixth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1047-1077). Christodoulus, whose original name as a monk of the ENATON, west of Alexandria, was Theodore, was a native of the village of Burah, but his date of birth is unknown. The first known event in his life concerns his castrating himself. This happened when …

Christodoulus Read More »

Icon

ICON The word icon derives from the Greek eikon, meaning “image,” “portrait,” or “likeness.” Generally, Coptic icons are made of panels of wood painted mostly in tempera. Encaustic (hot wax) was also used, and the panels may be covered with a layer of gesso. The greater majority of Coptic icons represent portraits such as images …

Icon Read More »

Athanasius I

ATHANASIUS I The Apostolic Saint, twentieth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (326-373). Athanasius’ life has been treated in detail by numerous authors. These sources can be categorized as follows: (1) the writings of Athanasius himself, which should be considered the most authentic of the sources. These include his historical tracts, encyclicals, an apology …

Athanasius I Read More »

Al-Makin Jirjis

AL-MAKIN JIRJIS A hegumenos of Alexandria, not to be confused with two famous Coptic authors of the same name—the twelfth-century historian and the fourteenth-century theologian. Al-Makin Jirjis was a hegumenos who in 1609 bore the title of the head of the priests in the three churches of Alexandria. This may correspond to what is now …

Al-Makin Jirjis Read More »

The Enaton

THE ENATON One of the chief monastic centers of Byzantine and medieval Egypt, near Alexandria. It was called in Arabic Dayr al-Zujaj (Monastery of Glass) or Dayr al-Zajjaj (Monastery of the Glass Maker). Although the whole complex of monasteries at Enaton was completely ruined at the end of the Middle Ages, numerous Greek and Oriental …

The Enaton Read More »

Acacian Schism

ACACIAN SCHISM, rupture of communion between Rome and Constantinople in the period 484-519. Behind the dispute between the two sees lay issues concerning the relations of both with Alexandria and diverging attitudes toward the Council of CHALCEDON. The death of TIMOTHY II AELURUS (“the Cat”), the anti-Chalcedonian patriarch of Alexandria, failed to end the schism …

Acacian Schism Read More »