ANGELS

ANGELS The scope of this article.—The passages in the apostolic writings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in HDB […]

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ANDRONICUS (Ἀνδρόνικος, a Greek name)

ANDRONICUS (Ἀνδρόνικος, a Greek name) Saluted by St. Paul in Ro 16:7, his name being coupled with that of Junias or Junia.* (1) The pair are described as ‘my kinsmen’ (τοὺς συγγενεῖς μου), by which may be meant fellow-Jews (Ro 9:5), possibly members of the same tribe, almost certainly not relatives. This last interpretation has […]

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ANANIAS (Gr. Ἀνανίας; Heb. חָנָן ‘Jahweh is gracious’)

ANANIAS (Gr. Ἀνανίας; Heb. חָנָן ‘Jahweh is gracious’) A very common name in later Jewish times, corresponding to Hananiah or Hanani of the OT. We find it occurring frequently in the post-exilic writings and particularly in the Apocrypha. In the history of the Apostolic Church, we meet with three persons bearing this name. An early […]

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AMEN

AMEN The lack of a common language has always been a barrier to the mutual knowledge and intercourse of the great nations of mankind, all the more that the days when the educated men of all European nations were wont to converse in Latin have long since passed away. To a certain extent the gulf […]

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ALTAR

ALTAR In the NT, as in the LXX, the usual term for ‘altar’ is θυσιαστήριον—a word otherwise confined to Philo, Josephus, and ecclesiastical writers—while βωμός, as contrasted with a Jewish place of sacrifice, is a heathen altar. The most striking example of the antithesis is found in 1 Mac 1:54–59. Antiochus Epiphanes erected a small […]

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ALPHA AND OMEGA

ALPHA AND OMEGA These are the first and last letters of the Gr. alphabet; cf. Heb. ‘Aleph to Tau’; Eng. ‘A to Z.’ The title is applied to God the Father in Rev 1:8; 21:5, and to Christ in Rev 22:13 (cf. 2:8). The ancient Heb. name for God, יהוה, has been very variously derived, […]

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ALMS

ALMS The duty of kindliness to and provision for the poor is constantly taught in the OT; in the later Jewish literature, and especially in Sirach and Tobit, it is even more emphatically asserted. It is clear that our Lord and the Apostolic Church taught this as a religious obligation with equal force. In the […]

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ALLEGORY

ALLEGORY The word is derived from the Greek ἀλληγορία, used of a mode of speech which implies more than is expressed by the ordinary meaning of the language. This method of interpreting literature was practised at an early date and among different peoples. When ideas of a primitive age were no longer tenable, respect for […]

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AIR

AIR The apostles, like other Jews of their time, regarded the air as a region between earth and the higher heavens, inhabited by spirits, especially evil spirits. In Eph 2:2 the air is the abode or Satan (see below); in Eph 6:12 ‘the heavenlies’ (τὰ ἐπουράνια)—a vague phrase used also in Eph 1:3, 20; 2:6; […]

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AGABUS (Ἄγαβος, a word of uncertain derivation)

AGABUS (Ἄγαβος, a word of uncertain derivation) The bearer of this name is mentioned on two separate occasions in the Acts (11:27–30; 21:10–11) and also by Eusebius (HE ii. 3). He is described as a prophet who resided in Jerusalem, and we find him in a.d. 44 at Antioch, where he predicted that a great […]

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