Christianization

History Bibliography

HISTORY BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, William Y. Nubia, Corridor to Africa. Princeton, N.J.: Allen Lane, 1977. Atiya, Aziz Suryal. “Ahl al-Dhimmah.” In CE, vol. 1, 72ff. ———. “Alexandria, Historic Churches in.” In CE, vol. 1, 92-95. ———. “Ayyubid Dynasty and the Copts.” In CE, vol. 1, 314ff. ———. “Eusebius of Caesarea.” In CE, vol. 4, 1070ff. ———. …

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Apocryphon Of John

APOCRYPHON OF JOHN The apocryphal work dealing with the risen Christ. A Coptic version of this “secret book” appeared in Berlin Papyrus 8502. It was then noted that Irenaeus may have used a Greek version in his treatise Against All the Heresies (1.29) written before A.D. 180. Notably, the NAG HAMMADI LIBRARY contains no fewer …

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Aswan

ASWAN (Syene) A town on the east bank of the Nile, at the position of the First Cataract, which in pharaonic times marked the borders of Egypt on the south. In the imperial period it was an administrative center and garrison town (Strabo Geographica 17.1.12), and from an early date (since A.D. 325; cf. Timm, …

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Greek Language

GREEK LANGUAGE Between Greeks and Egyptians, contacts of essentially commercial nature are attested for the Mycenaean period (c. 1580-1100 B.C.) and the ninth-eighth century B.C. Unambiguous evidence for Greek presence in Egypt is available from the seventh century B.C. on. Psammetichos I (664-610 B.C.) gave the Ionian and Carian mercenaries (the “bronze men” of Herodotus …

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Pisentius, Saint

PISENTIUS, SAINT A fourth-to-fifth century bishop of Hermonthis. The life of Saint Pisentius is preserved in one Arabic manuscript, now in the Coptic Museum, Cairo. Pisentius was born to pagan parents in Hermonthis (Armant), where he learned carpentry. Having witnessed a miracle, he went to the church and was baptized. Pisentius then went to the …

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Qasr Ibrim

QASR IBRIM A fortified hilltop settlement in Lower Nubia, about 25 miles (40 km) to the north of the famous temples of Abu Simbel. A temple seems to have been built there in the Egyptian New Kingdom, and the place was intermittently occupied from that time until its final abandonment in 1811. The name appears …

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Ethiopian Saints

ETHIOPIAN SAINTS The Ethiopian Orthodox Church recognizes most of the saints of the Universal Church before the Council of CHALCEDON (451) and all the saints of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, about whom it has knowledge through the SYNAXARION, accounts of their acts (gadl; Arabic, sirah), or through other means. The Synaxarion of the …

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Taqiy Al-Din Al-Maqrizi, (A.D. 1364-1442)

TAQIY AL-DIN AL-MAQRIZI, (A.D. 1364-1442) Arab historian and topographer. Al-Maqrizi composed two major works, a monumental topographical study, al-Mawa‘iz wa-al I‘tibar fi Dhikr al-Khitat wa-al-Athar (4 vols.), and a universal history, Kitab al- Suluk li-Ma‘rifat Duwal al-Muluk (4 vols.). Though at first concentrating his literary activity on local history and topography, he later extended his …

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Nubian Christian Architecture

NUBIAN CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE According to the testimony of JOHN OF EPHESUS (507-586), Nubia was evangelized in the second quarter of the sixth century by Julian and Theodorus, bishop of Philae. Christianization quickly made great progress. From the end of the sixth century, the country may accordingly be considered as essentially Christian. A monumental Christian architecture …

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