Christian churches

Nicaea, Council Of

NICAEA, COUNCIL OF (325) During the third century, the Christian churches had evolved organizational structures parallel in many respects to those of the Roman empire. Episcopal authority over congregations paralleled in some ways imperial authority; episcopal courts adjudicated for Christians the same matters as civil courts did; city councils and provincial governments provided models for …

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Coptic Music

COPTIC MUSIC  Description of the Corpus and Present Musical Practice The following remarks pertain only to the music of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Other Christian churches in Egypt (Greek Orthodox, Coptic Catholic, Protestant, etc.) have their own musical practices. Coptic music, an expression of a proud and constant faith, still lives today among the Copts …

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John XI

JOHN XI Eighty-ninth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1427-1452). John’s life before his selection is unknown. His biography in the HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS is restricted to the dates of his investiture and decease. In fact, the biographers of that period of the fourteenth century have refrained from dealing with the events of …

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Elkasites

ELKASITES A name occurring in variant spellings in several patristic texts and referring either to an allegedly revelatory book or to a religious teacher. Details about a book connected with the name Elchasai or Elxai are found in Hippolytus’ Refutation and in the Panarion of Epiphanius. In Hippolytus, Elchasai is assigned a role in the …

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Idfa

IDFA A city in the district of Suhaj. Called Iteb in the pharaonic period, and then in Hellenistic times Iton or Itos, Idfa is mentioned in the Christian period only in the summary that the recension of the SYNAXARION of the Copts from Upper Egypt devotes to the martyr hermits PANINE AND PANEU at 7 …

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Inscriptions

INSCRIPTIONS Writing on long-lasting materials. Inscriptions, like texts written on papyrus (see PAPYROLOGY), are important primary sources of information about a society. In Egypt they appear on stone, plaster, clay, wood, metal, and textiles. They may be scratched, carved, engraved, stamped, painted or inked, or woven. Those written on clay sherds or limestone fragments are …

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