castrum

Castrum

CASTRUM A Roman military camp developed from the so-called marching camp, which was constructed each evening by troops on the march in accordance with a model in force throughout the Roman empire. The uniformity of the camps enabled the soldiers to find their way about and also enabled them to react with speed in the …

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Saint Verena

SAINT VERENA A fourth-century Egyptian holy woman associated with the THEBAN LEGION martyred in Switzerland (feast days: 1 September and Easter Tuesday). Verena’s unwavering faith, long life of Christian charity, and many miracles contributed greatly to the spread of Christianity among the Alemanni in what is now Canton Argau, Switzerland. Her status in the German …

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Roman Army

ROMAN ARMY Roman troops were already present in Egypt when the country was still ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy XII Auletes, who had been driven from his throne by the Alexandrian opposition, would hardly have been able to reenter Egypt without the military aid of the Roman legate Aulus Gabinius (55 B.C.). Since that …

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Kellia

KELLIA History of the Site The Kellia is one of the most important and most celebrated monastic groupings in Lower Egypt. Its location long remained uncertain. In 1935 Omar Toussoun wrongly believed he had discovered its ruins near the northwest extremity of the Wadi al- Natrun. It was the exact location of the ancient Nitria …

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Aswan

ASWAN (Syene) A town on the east bank of the Nile, at the position of the First Cataract, which in pharaonic times marked the borders of Egypt on the south. In the imperial period it was an administrative center and garrison town (Strabo Geographica 17.1.12), and from an early date (since A.D. 325; cf. Timm, …

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Dayr Anba Hadra

DAYR ANBA HADRA. History This monastery, although uninhabited since the twelfth century, is fairly well preserved and has aroused the enthusiasm of archaeologists. It raises its imposing silhouette on the left bank of the Nile at a latitude south of the island of Elephantine. It is above the mausoleum of the Aga Khan, the religious …

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Dayr Abu Bifam (Asyut)

DAYR ABU BIFAM (Asyut) ABU SALIH THE ARMENIAN placed this monastery in the region of Asyut, without further specification (fols. 60v, 90r; 1895, pp. 56, 114 [text], 179, 251 [trans.]). He does indicate that it was called Dayr al-Tinadah, the last word being no doubt the transcription of the Coptic heneete with the feminine article …

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Greek Language

GREEK LANGUAGE Between Greeks and Egyptians, contacts of essentially commercial nature are attested for the Mycenaean period (c. 1580-1100 B.C.) and the ninth-eighth century B.C. Unambiguous evidence for Greek presence in Egypt is available from the seventh century B.C. on. Psammetichos I (664-610 B.C.) gave the Ionian and Carian mercenaries (the “bronze men” of Herodotus …

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Pshoi Of Tud, Saint

PSHOI OF TUD, SAINT An ascetic of Upper Egypt (feast day: 25 Kiyahk). He is known only from a brief notice in the recension of the SYNAXARION from Upper Egypt. The notice describes Pshoi as an ascetic who distinguished himself by an assiduous reading of the book of the prophet Jeremiah, to the point that …

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