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Cairo Museum

Audentia Episcopalis

AUDENTIA EPISCOPALIS The adjudication by a bishop of civil matters in dispute (see Codex Jus-tinianus 1.4), as well as of disciplinary matters among the clergy. On the basis of 1 Corinthians 6:1 the Christians—like the Jews—were not to conduct lawsuits before the judges of the pagan state. Disputes were, rather, to be settled within the …

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Apocryphal Literature

APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE Properly speaking, this consists of the so-called Old Testament pseudepigrapha. The Old Testament books called “apocryphal” by Protestants and “deuterocanonical” by Roman Catholics were until recently included in the biblical canon of the Coptic church. Only at the beginning of the twentieth century and by order of CYRIL V (1874-1927) were the following …

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Excommunication

EXCOMMUNICATION An exclusion from communion. The Coptic church canons contain lists of offenses that lead to exclusion from communion. The extant ostraca from around 600 show how bishops executed the punishment. As soon as a bishop received information of an offense against the church’s canons or the Christian moral law, he notified the person concerned—after …

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Pen Cases

PEN CASES Coptic scribes arranged their thick calami (pens), made from cut reeds, in leather cases. Some have come down to us and are preserved in the Coptic Museum in Cairo, the State Museum of Berlin, and in the Louvre, Paris; some come from the tombs of ANTINOOPOLIS. These pen cases, in the form of …

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Papyrus Collections

PAPYRUS COLLECTIONS Since the seventeenth-century scholars and travelers to Egypt have brought manuscripts to Europe. The papyri, whether they came to light in spectacular finds or as individual discoveries, whether they were uncovered in scientific excavations or through the diggings of thieves, went into papyrus collections, either directly or through dealers (see PAPYRUS DISCOVERIES). Not …

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Qus

QUS A town known in the era of the pharaohs as Ksa or Ksi. From the Greek period onward (third century B.C.) it was known as Apollinopolis Parva. It evolved by taking advantage of the activities of QIFT, which the Greek kings had made the starting point for roads linking the Nile Valley and the …

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Coptic Medical Papyri

COPTIC MEDICAL PAPYRI Among the voluminous Coptic medical literature, only remnants have survived, as is shown by the high numbers of the extant numbered pages. These remnants have come down to us on parchment, on papyrus, on ostraca, on paper, and on walls (as graffiti). Except for the second parchment manuscript (see below) the texts …

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