Benjamin

Ethiopian Saints

ETHIOPIAN SAINTS The Ethiopian Orthodox Church recognizes most of the saints of the Universal Church before the Council of CHALCEDON (451) and all the saints of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, about whom it has knowledge through the SYNAXARION, accounts of their acts (gadl; Arabic, sirah), or through other means. The Synaxarion of the …

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Fast of Heraclius

Fast of Heraclius This seven-day fast is attributed to Emperor Heraclius (575-642), who rescued the holy cross from the Persians in 629 and restored it to Golgotha. It is erroneously linked with the Coptic church, and taken to account for the first seven of the fifty-five days forming the Coptic Great Lent. The misconception arises …

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Fasting

FASTING Fasting is strictly observed by the Copts in accordance with their calendar. The custom predates Christianity in Judaism and ancient Egyptian religion. Fasts are recommended by Jesus (Mt. 6:16; Mk. 2:20) and by the apostles (Acts 13:2, 14:23; 2 Cor. 11:27). The total fasting days in Coptic tradition cover approximately two- thirds of the …

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Mark, Saint

MARK, SAINT One of the Twelve Apostles of Christ, traditionally regarded as the author of the Gospel of Mark and the first patriarch of the Coptic church (feast day: 30 Baramudah). The meager historical sources on Saint Mark’s life have given rise to conflicting accounts about his personality and even about his Gospel. Whereas liberal …

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Monastery Of The Metanoia

MONASTERY OF THE METANOIA The Alexandrian Monastery of the Metanoia (Penitence), also called the Monastery of Canopus or of the Tabennesiotes, played a prominent role in the religious history and the administrative life of Byzantine Egypt. One can merely catch a glimpse of this, for sources contain obscurities and contradictions. Origins No archaeological traces of …

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Martyrs, Coptic

MARTYRS, COPTIC The souls recognized in Egypt who suffered persecution and died for their faith. The majority of martyrs belong to the period of Roman persecutions from the time of Nero in the mid-first century to the time of Diocletian in the early fourth century. It is, of course, impossible to assemble the names of …

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Monenergism (Monergism)

MONENERGISM (Monergism) A movement that developed in the early part of the seventh century from an attempt by Emperor Heraclius I (610-641) to find a formula that would reconcile the Monophysites with neo-Chalcedonian orthodoxy. The dramatic success of Heraclius against the Persians, culminating in the triumphant restoration of the True Cross to Jerusalem in 630, …

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