Jesus Christ as the Only Begotten

Jesus Christ as the Only Begotten That the Bible refers to Jesus as “the only begotten of the Father” (John 1:14) has provoked great controversy in church history. Because Jesus is also called the “firstborn over all creation” (Colossians 1:15), it has been argued that the Bible teaches that Jesus is not divine, but an […]

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Theotokos Or The Mother Of God

THEOTOKOS OR THE MOTHER OF GOD St. Mary’s Maternity in the Bible The Holy Scripture witnesses to St. Mary’s motherhood of the Son of God, for it calls her Son “God” (). At the annunciation, angel Gabriel speaks of the Child St. Mary is to conceive as “the Son of the Most High”, “the Holy […]

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The History of Christianity in Egypt

The History of Christianity in Egypt THE TERM COPT COMES DIRECTLY FROM THE ARABIC QBT, which appears to derive from the Greek aigyptos (Egypt) / aigyptioi (Egyptians), a phonetic corruption of the ancient Egyptian word Hikaptah, one of the names of Memphis. Initially the word described a non-Arabic-speaking non-Muslim. By implication, a Copt was also […]

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Theology And Liturgy Bibliography

THEOLOGY AND LITURGY BIBLIOGRAPHY Abdallah, Alfonso. L’ordinamento Liturgico di Gabriele V-88 Patriarca Copto. Cairo: Ain Shams Press, 1962. ‘Abd al-Masih Salib al-Mas‘udi. Al-Khuulaji al-Muqaddas. Cairo: n.p., 1902. Alcock, Antony. The Life of Saint Samuel of Kalamun by Isaac the Presbyter. London: Aris & Philips, 1983. Allen, Pauline, and C. Datema. “Leontius presbyter of Constantinople.” Byzantina […]

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Subordinationism

SUBORDINATIONISM The inferiority of the Son to the Father, a doctrine explicitly maintained by ARIUS and later Arians. The term “of one substance” was designed to meet this claim. Another form of subordinationism maintains the inferiority of the Spirit to both Father and Son. Arius, in the opinion of Archbishop Alexander I of Alexandria, taught […]

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Arius

ARIUS Arius was born in Libya. He studied theology in Antioch at the School of Lucian. He returned to Alexandria where he was ordained a deacon and then a priest. In 318, he started to preach his theological doctrine, which provoked many discussions. His main doctrine was that because the Son was the first creature […]

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Arianism

ARIANISM Arianism is the doctrine established by Arius. It is important to mention that our primary sources on the Arian crisis are very poor. Most of our knowledge comes from his opponents, that is, Athanasius of Alexandria and others. The Arians played an important role in Church history until their extinction around 395 a.d. Arianism […]

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Coptic Relations With Rome

COPTIC RELATIONS WITH ROME In antiquity, the pope and Church of Alexandria stood in close and friendly relations with the pope and Church of Rome. Quite often both churches formed an alliance against New Rome (Constantinople) and its patriarch. The early synods of Alexandria were recognized by Rome: DEMETRIUS I against ORIGEN (231); PETER II […]

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Colluthus

COLLUTHUS A schismatic presbyter in Alexandria during the episcopate of ALEXANDER (312-326), nineteenth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark. In 324 the council convened by Hosius to quell the growing Arian controversy deposed Colluthus for taking upon himself the episcopal function of conferring orders. Ancient sources indicate that Colluthus was not a supporter of […]

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