Theotokos Or The Mother Of God

THEOTOKOS OR THE MOTHER OF GOD St. Mary’s Maternity in the Bible The Holy Scripture witnesses to St. Mary’s motherhood of the Son of God, for it calls her Son “God” (). At the annunciation, angel Gabriel speaks of the Child St. Mary is to conceive as “the Son of the Most High”, “the Holy […]

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The History of Christianity in Egypt

The History of Christianity in Egypt THE TERM COPT COMES DIRECTLY FROM THE ARABIC QBT, which appears to derive from the Greek aigyptos (Egypt) / aigyptioi (Egyptians), a phonetic corruption of the ancient Egyptian word Hikaptah, one of the names of Memphis. Initially the word described a non-Arabic-speaking non-Muslim. By implication, a Copt was also […]

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Subordinationism

SUBORDINATIONISM The inferiority of the Son to the Father, a doctrine explicitly maintained by ARIUS and later Arians. The term “of one substance” was designed to meet this claim. Another form of subordinationism maintains the inferiority of the Spirit to both Father and Son. Arius, in the opinion of Archbishop Alexander I of Alexandria, taught […]

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Arianism

ARIANISM Arianism is the doctrine established by Arius. It is important to mention that our primary sources on the Arian crisis are very poor. Most of our knowledge comes from his opponents, that is, Athanasius of Alexandria and others. The Arians played an important role in Church history until their extinction around 395 a.d. Arianism […]

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Coptic Relations With Rome

COPTIC RELATIONS WITH ROME In antiquity, the pope and Church of Alexandria stood in close and friendly relations with the pope and Church of Rome. Quite often both churches formed an alliance against New Rome (Constantinople) and its patriarch. The early synods of Alexandria were recognized by Rome: DEMETRIUS I against ORIGEN (231); PETER II […]

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Communion Table

COMMUNION TABLE The fixed table standing in the middle of the sanctury (haykal) of the church, at which the Divine Liturgy is celebrated. It is an almost cubical structure of brickwork, stonework, or marble. In the first three centuries of the Christian era, the communion table was made of wood, partly in symbolic allusion to […]

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Semi-Arians

SEMI-ARIANS A group drawn from among Arian theologians that was founded by Basil of Ancyra around 356. Its members espoused a doctrine of the sonship of Jesus that stood somewhere between the orthodox and the Arian (see ARIANISM) principles. They adopted the HOMOIOUSION theology and leaned toward orthodoxy. Saint ATHANASIUS returned to Alexandria in 362 […]

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Homoeans

HOMOEANS In the controversy between Athanasius and the Arians, a group tried to find a middle solution. Instead of homoousios (from the same substance), which occurred more than 25 times in the Apology against Apollinarius, this group under Acacius of Caesarea preferred the term homeousios, or “like God.” They played an important role in the […]

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Constantine (Bishop Of Asyut)

CONSTANTINE A sixth-seventh-century bishop of Asyut. History A summary of Constantine’s life has come down complete in a unique manuscript of the Sahidic recension of the Arabic SYNAXARION of the Copts, deposited at Luxor. There also exists for the first part and identical with the above document an isolated leaf (National Library, Paris, Arabic 4895). […]

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