archangel Gabriel

Wall painting, Dome of the Martyrs, Paul’s Monastery.

Coptic Art during the Ottoman Period: Documentation of the Akhmimic Style

Coptic Art during the Ottoman Period: Documentation of the Akhmimic Style History of the Akhmimic Style In the course of the seventeenth century, during the Ottoman period, significant innovations were introduced into Coptic art, which has led some scholars to speak of the ‘Akhmimic style.’ In order to study this style we need first to …

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Coptic Art

COPTIC ART Coptic art is a distinctive art associated with Christianity in Egypt. It is the richest art of the Eastern Christian arts. It appeared in the third or fourth century and began to flourish in the fifth century. Coptic art can only be understood and appreciated in the light of Egypt’s economic and social …

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Christian Subjects In Coptic Art

CHRISTIAN SUBJECTS IN COPTIC ART Whatever its materials and techniques—stone or wood relief sculpture, painted walls or manuscripts, textiles, metalwork, ceramics, or glass—Coptic Christian iconography retained a few rare elements of pharaonic origin and many Greco-Roman elements from Alexandrian tradition. From the fifth century on, these pagan subjects mingled with Christian motifs. The Christian subjects …

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Celestinus Of Rome

CELESTINUS OF ROME A bishop of Rome (422-432) and the authority to whom NESTORIUS, bishop of Constantinople, and CYRIL I, bishop of Alexandria, appealed during their controversy over the term THEOTOKOS (430). Celestinus sided with Cyril, and thus caused the condemnation of Nestorius at a council held in Rome. The subsequent Council of EPHESUS later …

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Coptic Woodwork

COPTIC WOODWORK The functional objects and sculpture made of wood in Egypt from the fourth century into the Middle Ages. By virtue of its geological past, Egypt originally had plentiful and varied supplies of wood, but it was rapidly used. Shortages were already evident in the pharaonic period. Ptolemaic rulers put into operation a policy …

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Coptic Hagiography

COPTIC HAGIOGRAPHY Egypt was influenced by the Greek culture, hence many of the hagiographical texts were written first in this language and translated later into Coptic. It is important to use the classical hagiographical tools such as Bibliotheca Hagiographica Orientalis and the Bibliotheca Sanctorum (16 vols., Rome 1965-1976), in addition to the bibliography in each …

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