Apostles

Nag Hammadi Codices

NAG HAMMADI CODICES A group of 12 papyrus codices plus eight leaves dating from the fourth century and inscribed in Coptic. The manuscripts were discovered in a buried storage jar by fellahin (farmers) in 1945 some 10 kilometers from Nag Hammadi, and are now housed in the Coptic Museum in Old Cairo. Publication of the …

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Christianity In Nubia

CHRISTIANITY IN NUBIA The Nubian Church is unique among the Middle Eastern churches in that it started and prospered in an atmosphere of complete political independence. Some scholars believe that Queen Candace of the Ethiopians, who is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles 8:27-39, was the Queen of Meroe (ca. 37). However, it was …

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Oratory

ORATORY (Latin, oratorium, place of prayer). The term oratory is used in Egypt to designate the small chapel adjoining the monk’s cell for private worship. It is often equipped with a bench in front of the west wall. The most significant part of the oratory is the east wall, which usually features three niches; two …

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Penance

PENANCE The book of The Shepherd by Hermas (written in Rome in the mid-second century) mentioned baptism as the unique way for the remission of sins. But for Christians who committed a great sin after baptism, there is the metanoia or penance. Tertullian in the beginning of the third century published the first treatise On …

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Priest

PRIEST The priest is mentioned several times in the New Testament. Christ chose a number of men and named them apostles (; ). By the full authority that was committed to Him, He commanded them to go forth and baptize people everywhere and teach them to observe His commandments. They alone were given the power …

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Patriarch Gabriel III

PATRIARCH GABRIEL III The life of the monk and priest Ghubriyāl, who eventually became Coptic patriarch Gabriel III (usually counted as the 77th patriarch, 1268–1271), bears witness to both the flourishing of literary and scientific activity as well as to the turbulence of ecclesiastical and social affairs that characterize Coptic Orthodox history in the middle decades …

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