Antioch

Jacob Baradaeus

JACOB BARADAEUS (c. 500-578) The apostle of Monophysite Christianity in the church of Antioch (see MONOPHYSITISM). Through his efforts to preserve the Antiochene church from persecution he is known as the founder of the Syrian Orthodox church, or Jacobite church, which regards him as a saint. Jacob Baradaeus was born in the village of Gamawa …

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Jerome, Saint

JEROME, SAINT (c. 347-419/420) A father of the church who was one of the greatest biblical scholars of all time. His foremost accomplishment was translating the Bible from its original languages into Latin. Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus in Latin) was born in Stridon at the head of the Adriatic. His advanced education began in Rome and …

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Demetrius I

DEMETRIUS I The twelfth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (189-231). He succeeded JULIAN and was a contemporary of eight Roman emperors, from Commodus (180-192) to Alexander Severus (222-235), through the age of persecutions, which were particularly harsh in the reign of Septimius Severus (193-211). Until the time of Demetrius, the church had been …

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Demetrius Of Antioch

DEMETRIUS OF ANTIOCH A fictitious character created by the originators of a literary CYCLE during the late period in Coptic literature. Demetrius was a figure behind whom a later Coptic author (or authors) hid in order to lend an image of antiquity and authority to theological and moral arguments. A hagiographical thread was added by …

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Ebionites

EBIONITES Judaizing Christians who developed into a separate sect by the last quarter of the second century and had some influence on the early history of the church in Egypt. The term “Ebion” is probably derived from the Hebrew ebyon (the poor). It is an attribute of those who serve the Lord, in contrast with …

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Docetism

DOCETISM The term “docetism” comes from the Greek word dokeo (I seem, I appear), and was first used by Serapion, bishop of Antioch (190-208), to refer to certain heretics of the early church. In its earliest expression, docetism apparently grew out of the difficulties of explaining how the Son of God could be subject to …

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Dioscorus II

DIOSCORUS II The thirty-first patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (515-517). A nephew of TIMOTHY II Aelurus, Dioscorus II had a brief but dramatic reign. He was first installed under the auspices of the government authorities, but when this roused protests, he secured a more proper ecclesiastical enthronement. Nevertheless, riots followed in which the …

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Agnoetae

AGNOETAE A name was given to those who attributed either ignorance (agnoia) to Christ relating to subjects such as the timing of the Day of Judgment (cf. Mk. 13:32) or, alternatively, a gradual ascension to knowledge and wisdom (cf. Lk. 2:52). In Alexandria, the issue grew out of the controversy between SEVERUS OF ANTIOCH and …

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Agathon Of Homs

AGATHON OF HOMS (AGATHON OF HOMS) A twelfth-century author and a bishop of Homs (Homs), and mentioned by the encyclopedist Abu al-Barakat IBN KABAR (d. 1324) in Chapter 7 of the Misbah al-Zulmah (Misbah al-Zulmah) (“Lamp of Darkness”). He classes him among the Coptic medieval authors after SAWIRUS IBN AL-MUQAFFA‘, Michael of Damietta, and Butrus …

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Acephaloi

ACEPHALOI Extremist anti-Chalcedonians in Egypt who refused to recognize the Alexandrian patriarchs who accepted the HENOTICON. They first appear in history in 482 as Egyptian monks who opposed PETER III MONGUS’s rapprochement with Constantinople (Zacharias Rhetor Historia ecclesiastica 6. 2). Their name denoted their community of purpose without the need of a personal leader, and …

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