anti-Chalcedonians

Trisagion

TRISAGION “Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal . . . have mercy upon us.” The Trisagion was introduced into the Byzantine liturgy by Proclus of Cyzicus, who succeeded Nestorius as Bishop of Constantinople (431-446 a.d.). However, a papyrus from the fourth century preserved in the collection of the University of Strasbourg includes a Trisagion in …

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Dayr Al-Arman

DAYR AL-ARMAN The fifteenth-century Muslim historian al- Maqrizi said that at the time the conqueror ‘Amr ibn al-‘As arrived in Egypt in 641, there were a hundred monasteries in Wadi al- Natrun. He named some that were destroyed in his time, among them the Monastery of the Armenians, or Dayr al-Arman. For his part, MAWHUB …

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Timothy Salofaciolus

TIMOTHY SALOFACIOLUS A Chalcedonian patriarch of Alexandria (460-482). A one-time steward of the church of Alexandria, he was consecrated patriarch after the expulsion of TIMOTHY II AELURUS (“the Cat”) in 459. His nickname may be derived from Coptic with a “dog Latin” ending meaning “wearer of a white turban” or “wobbling turban.” He was the …

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Dayr Qibriyus

DAYR QIBRIYUS A monastery near Alexandria. The HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS records that the future patriarch BENJAMIN I (622-661) took refuge, a year before the death of his predecessor the patriarch ANDRONICUS, in a monastery situated “to the northeast of the town,” close to a holy old man named Theonas. The monastery had not been …

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Monophysitism

MONOPHYSITISM The doctrine that the incarnate Christ is one Person and has one divine nature as opposed to the orthodox doctrine that he is one Person and has two natures, one human and one divine. The rift between the Monophysites, including the Coptic, Syrian, Ethiopian, and Armenian churches, and the Orthodox Church has divided Eastern …

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Henoticon

HENOTICON A fifth-century imperial edict that was one of the basic statements of imperial theology and ecclesiastical policy of the early Byzantine period. It is the name given to the instrument of union addressed by Emperor ZENO to the “bishops, clergy, monks and laity throughout Alexandria and Egypt and Libya and Pentapolis” in 482. Its …

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Monenergism (Monergism)

MONENERGISM (Monergism) A movement that developed in the early part of the seventh century from an attempt by Emperor Heraclius I (610-641) to find a formula that would reconcile the Monophysites with neo-Chalcedonian orthodoxy. The dramatic success of Heraclius against the Persians, culminating in the triumphant restoration of the True Cross to Jerusalem in 630, …

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