Anatolius

Cycle

CYCLE One of a group of works in Coptic literature dealing with episodes in the life of one or more specific characters, mostly saints and martyrs. There are two basic types of cycle: homiletic and hagiographical. The difference lies simply in the different literary forms used, with the homiletic cycles being made up of texts …

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Saint Apoli

SAINT APOLI The fourth-century martyr of Antiochian origin, who was put to death in Egypt (feast day: 1 Misrah). He appears only in the later hagiographic Coptic tradition. Of his Passion, ascribed to an eyewitness, the servant Sergius, two Bohairic fragmentary manuscripts are preserved. The first consists of four folios from Cairo (ed. Evelyn-White, 1926, …

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Timothy II Aelurus

TIMOTHY II AELURUS The twenty-sixth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (457-477). Along with Philoxenus of Mabbug and SEVERUS OF ANTIOCH, Timothy was the preeminent champion of MONOPHYSITISM. He adhered to CYRIL’S well-known formula “one incarnate nature of the divine Logos” and took up DIOSCORUS’ cause when the latter was deposed at CHALCEDON. Consecrated …

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Rufinus (C. 345-410)

RUFINUS (c. 345-410) Rufinus Tyrannius was born at Concordia in North Italy about 345 and in 371 was baptized at Aquileia, where he lived until he began his travels in the Middle East. He lived in Egypt for six years before going to Jerusalem for two years, after which he returned to Egypt for two …

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Copto-Arabic Synaxarion

COPTO-ARABIC SYNAXARION A list of saints used in the Coptic church Editions of the Synaxarion This book, which has become a liturgical book, is very important for the history of the Coptic church. It appears in two forms: the recension from Lower Egypt, which is the quasi-official book of the Coptic church from Alexandria to …

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Saint Theodorus

SAINT THEODORUS The name of two Coptic martyrs. One is surnamed Stratelates (“the General”) and the other “Anatolius” (though, as we shall see, understanding this as equivalent to “Eastern” is not correct). The sources concerning them are sometimes common to both, so that we shall deal with them together, while pointing out the distinction between …

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Anastasius Of Eucaita

ANASTASIUS OF EUCAITA A fictitious character invented in the Period of the CYCLES (eighth century), in relation to the legends concerning the martyr THEODORUS STRATELATES, who was from Eucaita. Anastasius is said to have been bishop of Eucaita, the successor of a certain Sukianus, and it is stated that he composed an encomium in honor …

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Saint Anatolius

SAINT ANATOLIUS A fourth-century martyr (feast day: 9 Tubah). He is one of the personages of the Basilidian cycle referred to in different texts in relationship with the more famous Theodore Anatolius. The most important part of his martyrdom is recorded in one incomplete codex (Balestri and Hyvernat, 1908); two fragments from Leipzig consist of …

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Eutyches

EUTYCHES The fifth-century archimandrite in Constantinople whose Christological views had a considerable influence in molding the Christology of the Coptic-Monophysite church. Born perhaps as early as 370 (he tells Pope LEO THE GREAT (440-461) that he had lived a monastic life for seventy years), he was head of a monastic house in the capital by …

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