al-Kamil

Alexandria

ALEXANDRIA Founded in 331 b.c. by Alexander the Great at the western end of the Nile Delta. An Egyptian town, Rakote, already existed there on the shore and was a fishermen’s resort. From its very beginning, Alexandria developed rapidly into one of the world’s great cities. The city replaced Memphis as the capital of Egypt …

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Copts And The Crusades

COPTS AND THE CRUSADES To understand the position of the Copts vis-à-vis the movement of the Crusading expeditions from the West against the Muslim Middle Eastern countries, one must go back to the time of the last ecumenical council of CHALCEDON in 451. The reason for this inquiry is to elucidate Coptic feelings toward those …

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CYRIL III IBN LAQLAQ

CYRIL III IBN LAQLAQ The seventy-fifth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1235-1243). Cyril, known as Ibn Laqlaq before his investiture, was called Dawud ibn Yuhanna ibn Laqlaq al-Fayyumi, indicating that he was originally a native of the city of al-Fayyum in Upper Egypt. His date of birth is unknown, and his ascension to …

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Karimi Guild

KARIMI GUILD One of the most important guilds of merchants in the history of the Middle East. It conducted extensive trade between the East and the West at the end of the Middle Ages, including the Karimi commerce in spices, jewelry, and precious stones, from the Far East to the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, …

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Dayr Al-Qusayr (Turah)

DAYR AL-QUSAYR (Turah) [This article is made up of two parts, history and architecture. More information has accumulated about Dayr al-Qusayr than about many other monasteries.] History This ruined monastery in the Middle Ages was called Dayr al- Baghl (Monastery of the Mule); Dayr al- Yunan; Dayr al- Haraqal (Monastery of Heraclius); and Dayr Arsaniyus, …

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Church Of Al-Mu‘Allaqah

CHURCH OF AL-MU‘ALLAQAH (Old Cairo) الكنيسة المعلقة   This church is called in Coptic manuscripts “the church of Saint Mary, Mother of God, at Babylon in Egypt” (Amélineau, 1893, pp. 577-79). Texts in Arabic describe it as the “church of our Lady Mary, surnamed the hanging.” European travelers have called it “the church of the …

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Peter V

PETER V The eighty-third patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1340-1348). Peter (Butrus) ibn Dawud was originally a monk of the Monastery of Saint Macarius (DAYR ANBA MAQAR); then he was chosen as abbot of DAYR SHAHRAN. He was unanimously nominated for the patriarchate one year after the decease of BENJAMIN II, his predecessor. …

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