al-Balyana

Clerical College (Cairo)

CLERICAL COLLEGE (Cairo) The idea of the establishment of a school for teaching Coptic theology to prepare a new generation of educated priests to assume religious responsibilities in Coptic churches goes back to the middle of the nineteenth century. Until that time the priesthood in Coptic churches held a monopoly as it was a hereditary …

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Clerical College (Cairo)

CLERICAL COLLEGE (CAIRO) It was inaugurated as a religious school on 3 January 1875. The aim of its establishment was to prepare a new generation of educated Coptic priests. The main subjects taught were theology, liturgy, Church history, ecclesiastical juris-prudence, and rhetoric, in addition to Arabic, Coptic, geography, and mathematics. When in 1918 Habib Girgis …

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Christodoulus

CHRISTODOULUS The sixty-sixth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1047-1077). Christodoulus, whose original name as a monk of the ENATON, west of Alexandria, was Theodore, was a native of the village of Burah, but his date of birth is unknown. The first known event in his life concerns his castrating himself. This happened when …

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CYRIL II

CYRIL II The sixty-seventh patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1078-1092). Cyril was a monk of the Monastery of Saint Macarius (DAYR ANBA MAQAR), and his original name was George (Jirja). Nothing is known about his secular life or his date of birth beyond the fact that he was a native of the province …

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Yusab II

YUSAB II The 115th patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1946-1956). He was born in 1880 at Dayr al-Tafatish, a village near al-Balyana in the province of Jirja. He entered DAYR ANBA ANTUNIYUS, in the Eastern Desert, at the age of seventeen, and was made priest and HEGUMENOS in 1901. From 1902 to 1905 …

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Yacobos II

YACOBOS II The archbishop of Jerusalem (1946-1956). He was born in the village of al-Muti‘ah in 1908. In 1939 he resigned from the civil service and entered the CLERICAL COLLEGE in Cairo, from which he graduated in 1942. He joined the Monastery of Saint Antony (DAYR ANBA ANTUNIYUS), where he took the name Salib al-Antuni. …

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Athanasius I

ATHANASIUS I The Apostolic Saint, twentieth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (326-373). Athanasius’ life has been treated in detail by numerous authors. These sources can be categorized as follows: (1) the writings of Athanasius himself, which should be considered the most authentic of the sources. These include his historical tracts, encyclicals, an apology …

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Shenute I

SHENUTE I The fifty-fifth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (858-880). Shenute, or Sanutios in Coptic and Shinudah in modern Arabic, was a native of the village of al-Batanun, today a village in the governorate of Shibn al-Kom, the capital city of the Minufiyyah province in Lower Egypt. Little is known about his early …

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Al-Balyana

AL-BALYANA A city in the province of Jirja in middle Egypt. It is located on the west side of the Nile roughly between Akhmim and Nag Hammadi. Christian-Arabic literature makes few references to al-Balyana. However, as indicated by the account of the struggle of Patriarch SHENUTE I (858-880) with the heretical views of a bishop …

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