AHL AL-DHIMMAH

History Bibliography

HISTORY BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, William Y. Nubia, Corridor to Africa. Princeton, N.J.: Allen Lane, 1977. Atiya, Aziz Suryal. “Ahl al-Dhimmah.” In CE, vol. 1, 72ff. ———. “Alexandria, Historic Churches in.” In CE, vol. 1, 92-95. ———. “Ayyubid Dynasty and the Copts.” In CE, vol. 1, 314ff. ———. “Eusebius of Caesarea.” In CE, vol. 4, 1070ff. ———. …

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Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah

IBN QAYYIM AL-JAWZIYYAH (al-Salafi Shams al-Din Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ayyub ibn Sa‘d ibn Hariz al-Zar‘i al-Dimashqi), fourteenth-century encyclopedia author. He was known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah since his father was the curator of the Jawziyyah School in Damascus. He was a Hanbalite. Though he received his training from numerous teachers, …

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Jizyah

JIZYAH A poll tax, or capitation tax, imposed on all able-bodied non-Muslim subjects of the Islamic state. It was required of Dhimmis (see AHL AL-DHIMMAH), who were Christians, Jews, and other monotheistic non-Muslims with a protected status. They were barred from enlisting in Islamic armies, and their poll tax was supposed to pay for Muslims …

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Hisbah, Or Ihtisab

HISBAH, or ihtisab The “promotion of good and the forbidding of evil” as one of the principal religious duties of every Muslim and as the duty of a specially appointed person in each town, particularly in regard to the supervision of markets, artisans, and moral behavior in public. This person, called the muhtasib, was concerned …

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Mark III, Saint

MARK III, SAINT The seventy-third patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1167-1189) (feast day: 6 Tubah). Mark’s secular name before his investiture in the patriarchate was Abu al-Faraj ibn Abi al-Sa‘d ibn Zar‘ah. He was a layman of Syrian origin, related to the sixty- second patriarch, Abraham. He was a bachelor known to all …

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Millet

MILLET The corruption of the Arabic term millah (religion or rite). The word has come to signify the people or community of a non-Muslim protected religion—that is, the Jews and the Christians, ahl al-kitab or ahl al-dhimmah (people of the book [the Bible], and people entrusted to Islam). AZIZ S. ATIYA Tags: Culture

John XIII

JOHN XIII Ninety-fourth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1484-1524). John’s life before joining the Monastery of Our Lady, known as DAYR AL-MUHARRAQ, is unknown. After the death of JOHN XII, the bishops, the clergy, and the archons remained undecided about the selection of a candidate for patriarch for approximately two years. Finally, they …

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