A professor of Near Eastern history at the Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel.

He was born at (Egypt), and received his education at the University of Alexandria. In 1961 he obtained a doctorate from Hamburg University.

His active academic service included the posts of chief cataloger at the University of Alexandria Library from 1947 to 1954, lecturer in Arabic at Hamburg University from 1961 to 1978, and professor of Near Eastern History at Kiel University from 1979 until his death in 1987. He was also a history professor at the University of Utah from 1970 to 1974. Besides numerous articles, he wrote and edited some major volumes in German and Arabic, including Handelsgeschichte Ägyptens im Spätmittelalter (Wiesbaden, 1965) and al-Turkumani’s Arabic Chronicle (Cairo, 1986).


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