SAINT HERAI

A fourth-century virgin martyr in Egypt (feast day: 14 Tubah); she is briefly mentioned also in the Greek calendar (5 and 23 September). The legendary Passion of Herai survives in a single Sahidic manuscript (Egyptian Museum, Turin, cat. 63000, III. 65-72), which is now incomplete. The missing portions can be reconstructed from the brief summary in the Copto- SYNAXARION (“Theban” redaction; cf. Coquin, 1978).

Herai, we are told, was an outstandingly beautiful twelve-year- old virgin, arrested as a along with a group of other virgins, while they were going to draw water in their native of Tammah in Middle Egypt. Herai foresaw that she would soon be a martyr and made a long farewell speech to her companions.

They were all taken by boat to and brought before the prefect Culcianus, who was struck by Herai’s beauty and desired to save her by having her offer a sacrifice. Culcianus was also struck by the fact—interesting for us in the framework of the legend—that Herai understood Greek.

In accordance with the usual structure of these Passions, there follows a scene of altercation between Culcianus and Herai, interspersed with threats of torture. There is also a divine intervention, just before the execution of Herai, which concludes the Coptic text.

The legend of Herai must have been known locally in and around Tammah, since it was inserted into the Synaxarion of Upper but not in that of Lower Egypt (cf. Coquin, 1978), which eventually prevailed. Furthermore, as far as can be judged from the surviving text, it does not belong to one of the major hagiographical CYCLES, although the figure of Culcianus is well known from other Passions.

It is possible, however, that the Passion of Herai may be the basis for the later Passion of the martyrs TER AND ERAI, composed as part of the cycle of BASILIDES the General. Herai is mentioned in this latter Passion as a martyr venerated in an important shrine at Tammah, to which the “second” Erai made a pilgrimage.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Baumeister, T. Martyr Invictus. Der Märtyrer als Sinnbild der Erlösung in der Legende und im Kult der frühen Kirche, p. 103. Münster, 1972.
  • Coquin, R.-G. “Le Synaxaire des Coptes. Un Nouveau témoin de la de Haute-Egypte.” Analecta Bollandiana 96 (1978):351-65.
  • Rossi, F. I Papiri copti del Museo Egizio di Torino, 2 vols. Turin, 1887-1892.

TITO ORLANDI